Many organizations continue to make critical identity management mistakes in an evolving work environment and lifestyle that includes remote and temporary workers, adoption of cloud solutions and Internet of Things (IoT) technology, working from home, and leveraging employees’ own devices (BYOD) across enterprises which introduce new concerns associated with identity and access management (IAM). For networks to remain secure, enterprises seeking the benefits of updated technology must implement concurrent IAM policy improvements. However, over 90% of IT and security professionals around the world admit to facing “at least one challenge” when it comes to identity management. Such challenges can lead to several common mistakes known to leave networks vulnerable to breaches.

5 cybersecurity and critical identity management mistakes

Critical Identity Management Mistakes

Identity management mistakes can lead to security breaches and operational inefficiencies. One common error is weak password policies that allow users to create easily guessable or reused passwords, making it easier for malicious actors to compromise accounts. Another mistake is insufficient access control, where users are granted excessive privileges, leading to unauthorized access to sensitive information. Inadequate user provisioning and deprovisioning processes can result in lingering access for former employees, posing a significant security risk. Neglecting multi-factor authentication (MFA) leaves systems vulnerable to credential theft, and poor user education on security best practices increases the likelihood of social engineering attacks. These identity management missteps can compromise data integrity and confidentiality, disrupt business operations, and damage an organization’s reputation. Let’s dive deeper into some of the more critical identity management mistakes.

Failing to Research IAM Solutions

Affordability and usability are key characteristics to look for in an IAM solution, but enterprises don’t often think beyond such basic functionality when choosing platforms and services. Prior to implementation, platforms must be examined to determine if the tools are appropriate and compatible. IAM solutions lacking smooth integrations can disrupt the seamless experience customers expect and employees require and may actually lead to more security problems.

Evaluating typical use cases and workflows can act as a guide in ensuring a good fit. Enterprise IT teams should ask:

• How many identities need managing?
• What level of access control is required to maintain security?
• Does the platform meet compliance requirements?
• Who needs to access which resources, and what is the typical access environment?
• Can the company’s budget support the cost of implementation and maintenance?
• Is operation straightforward and intuitive for users?

Not Cracking Down on Misuse of Credentials

Employees who become frustrated by complex or confusing access requirements or who are forced to wait for IT teams to fix access problems may unintentionally abuse credentials. Password sharing is a common problem in enterprise environments as employees try to “help” colleagues work around their access issues. Logging in with someone else’s credentials may give a user greater access privileges than those granted by his or her own account, which can leave sensitive information vulnerable to loss or theft.

Malicious insiders may also gain unauthorized access to sensitive areas of the network by taking advantage of lack of IAM oversight. According to the Privileged Access Threat Report, insider threats were the suspected cause of breach activity at 64% of organizations. Correcting the problem requires a commitment to IAM policy enforcement and employee education, as well as greater diligence vetting candidates during recruitment.

Clinging to Passwords

Despite growing evidence of the inadequacy of password-only access control, some businesses still continue to rely on single-factor authentication (SFA). The danger of SFA is twofold: Employees have notoriously poor password management habits, and hackers can easily guess passwords or steal them through social engineering or from databases if proper encryption is not in place. Employees reuse the same password 13 times on average, so if a malicious third party obtains access credentials to one asset, access is likely to be possible in other areas of the network.

Multi-factor authentication (MFA) with an option for single sign-on (SSO) combines stronger authentication methods with streamlined operation to create a more secure, user-friendly form of IAM for enterprise environments. MFA typically uses passwords along with one or more other authentication methods to make unauthorized access more difficult, and SSO allows users to access the network without inputting credentials numerous times during a single workflow.

Not Performing Device Audits

Forty-eight percent of enterprises can’t detect all the devices connected to their networks. This lack of visibility provides multiple infiltration opportunities for hackers and malicious insiders. Many IoT devices remain configured with default settings, including access credentials, which offer little or no protection against potential breaches.

Because every device an enterprise can’t see is tantamount to a breach waiting to happen, routine device audits are essential. Audits examine the network for previously “unseen” devices and determine configurations, authentication services, and software versions. Devices in need of reconfiguration are updated to provide better antivirus and antispam protection, stronger encryption, and improved device-level security.

Having a Fragmented Approach to IAM

Thirty-one percent of companies say they don’t have enough people on their information security teams with IAM responsibilities, which suggests the need for a shift toward a model with a core team of dedicated IAM experts. Creating a central IAM team can require a long search for qualified IT and cybersecurity professionals, but it’s worth the effort for enterprises relying on IoT technology to reap the benefits. Without a unified approach to the development, deployment, enforcement and maintenance of IAM policies, enterprises risk falling victim to vulnerabilities created when software and hardware updates are allowed to lapse and oversight of privileged accounts falls by the wayside.

Shifting focus to better IAM policies and consistent enforcement of access rules equips enterprises to leverage the power of technology without putting networks at risk. By working closely with in-house and third-party IT professionals, it’s possible to maintain the level of diligence and agility necessary to identify and respond to potential threats in a continuously evolving security environment.

Identity and access management certifications

Selecting the best data protection certification can be critical for organizations and professionals looking to ensure the security and privacy of their data. Several widely recognized certifications exist, but the criteria for determining the best data protection certification can depend on your specific needs.

Best Data Protection Certification

What is Data Protection and Why is it Important?

Data protection is paramount in today’s digital landscape for several critical reasons, especially due to the vast amount of confidential and personal information being processed, stored, and shared electronically.

First, data protection intends to safeguard sensitive and confidential data, including personal information, financial data, and proprietary business information. Unauthorized access or data breach incidents can lead to identity theft, financial fraud, and harm to individuals and organizations.

Second, compliance with data protection regulations, such as GDPR is mandatory to protect individuals’ rights and avoid severe legal consequences. Data protection safeguards individuals’ privacy by ensuring their personal data remains confidential and is not misused or accessed by unauthorized parties. This is crucial for preserving trust and complying with privacy regulations which impose strict requirements on organizations handling personal information.

Third, data protection is essential for maintaining trust and reputation. Organizations that fail to protect their data risk damage to their brand image and loss of customer trust. High-profile data breaches have demonstrated how quickly public trust can erode, resulting in reputational damage that can take years to recover from. Businesses and institutions must prioritize data security to preserve their credibility and competitiveness in the market. Also, data protection is vital for businesses and organizations because data is a valuable asset. Protecting proprietary information, business secrets, and intellectual property is essential for maintaining a competitive advantage and preventing financial losses due to data breaches or theft. Moreover, safeguarding customer data is critical for building and preserving trust, as a breach can lead to reputational damage, legal liabilities, and significant financial penalties.

Lastly, data security mitigates financial risks and ensures business continuity. Cyberattacks and data breaches can disrupt operations, leading to downtime, financial losses, and potential regulatory fines. Robust security measures, such as backups and disaster recovery plans, are crucial for minimizing the impact of these incidents and ensuring data availability and reliability. In summary, data security is important for protecting important information, maintaining trust, preserving financial stability, and ensuring the uninterrupted operation of businesses and organizations in today’s digital world.

To better understand the technical and subtle differences of data and information as well as security and protection, click here to read the article published by Henry Bagdasarian who is the chief designer of the CDP data protection certification program to learn more about these industry terms.

Generally Accepted Data Security Standards

Data security refers to the practice of protecting digital information, data, and systems from unauthorized access, disclosure, alteration, or destruction. It encompasses a range of measures and strategies designed to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of data.

  1. Confidentiality: Ensuring that data is only accessible to authorized individuals or entities. This involves measures like encryption, access controls, and user authentication.
  2. Integrity: Guaranteeing that data remains accurate and trustworthy throughout its lifecycle. This is achieved through data validation, checksums, and audit trails.
  3. Availability: Making sure that data is available to authorized users when they need it. This includes measures to prevent downtime due to cyberattacks, hardware failures, or other disruptions.
  4. Authentication: Verifying the identity of users and systems attempting to access data or resources. Common methods include passwords, biometrics, and multi-factor authentication (MFA).
  5. Authorization: Determining what actions and data each authenticated user or system is allowed to access. Access controls and permissions are essential for enforcing authorization policies.
  6. Encryption: The process of converting data into a code to protect it from unauthorized access. This can include encrypting data at rest and in transit (data stored vs. data being transmitted over networks).
  7. Firewalls and Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS): Implementing network security measures to block unauthorized access and detect suspicious activities or intrusions.
  8. Patch Management: Keeping system software current with the latest security patches to address known vulnerabilities.
  9. Backup and Disaster Recovery: Creating periodic backups of data and having a system and data recovery plan in the event of data loss or system failures.
  10. Security Awareness and Training: Educating employees and system users about best practices in security and improving awareness of the latest threats such as social engineering and phishing attacks.
  11. Security Policies and Procedures: Establishing and enforcing security policies and procedures to guide employees and users in maintaining data security.

Generally Accepted Privacy Principles

The generally accepted privacy principles are a set of foundational principles that form the basis of data protection and privacy practices. These principles help guide individuals, organizations, and governments in managing and protecting personal information. While the specifics may vary by region and organization, the following are commonly recognized privacy principles:

Purpose Limitation: Personal data should be collected for a specific, legitimate purpose and not used for any other purpose without consent.

Data Minimization: Collect and process only the data that is necessary for the intended purpose, avoiding excessive or irrelevant information.

Consent: Individuals should have the right to give informed consent before their data is collected and processed. They should also have the right to withdraw consent at any time.

Data Accuracy: Organizations are responsible for ensuring the accuracy of the data they collect and maintain. Individuals should have the right to correct inaccurate information.

Storage Limitation: Data should be retained only for as long as necessary to fulfill the purpose for which it was collected.

Security: Personal data must be securely protected against unauthorized access, disclosure, alteration, or destruction. Security controls may include data encryption, access management controls, and periodic security audits.

Transparency: Individuals have the right to know how their data is being used, who is using it, and for what purposes. Organizations should provide clear, accessible privacy policies.

Accountability: Organizations should be accountable for the personal data they process. This includes having data protection policies, appointing a data protection officer (in some cases), and ensuring compliance with privacy laws and regulations.

Data Subject Rights: Individuals have certain rights, including the right to access their data, correct inaccuracies, delete their selected data (also known as the “right to be forgotten”), and transfer their data to other services or providers.

Purpose and Use Limitation: Data should not be used for purposes beyond those for which it was collected without obtaining additional consent.

Cross-Border Data Transfer: If personal data is transferred to other countries, the organization should ensure adequate protections, often through mechanisms like Standard Contractual Clauses or Binding Corporate Rules.

Accountability and Governance: Organizations should establish and maintain comprehensive data protection policies, procedures, and practices. They should also have mechanisms for redress, complaints, and oversight.

These principles serve as a framework for organizations and legal systems to design and implement privacy practices and regulations. Different regions and jurisdictions may emphasize these principles differently, and specific privacy laws may add additional requirements and nuances to these principles. However, the fundamental concepts remain consistent in efforts to protect personal information and privacy.

Criteria for Selecting the Best Data Protection Certification

Below are some key factors to consider when assessing and selecting the best data protection certification:

  1. Regulatory Compliance: Ensure that the certification aligns with the generally accepted data privacy and security standards such as the GDPR data protection regulation. Certification should demonstrate your commitment to complying with global legal requirements.
  2. Reputation and Recognition: Look for certification that is well-established and recognized within your industry.
  3. Comprehensive Coverage: The certification should cover a wide range of data security and privacy aspects, including data encryption, access controls, incident response, and data retention policies. A holistic approach to data protection is essential.
  4. Cost and Resources: Consider the financial and human resources required for achieving and maintaining the certification. Some certifications may be more cost-effective and manageable for your organization.
  5. International Scope: If your business operates globally, consider certifications that have international recognition, making it easier to demonstrate data protection to a global customer base. The CDP data protection certification is country, industry, and regulation neutral making it one of the best data protection certifications globally with the lowest initiation and renewal cost.

Ultimately, the best data protection certification will depend on your organization’s specific context, risk tolerance, and regulatory environment. Conduct a thorough assessment of your needs and consult with experts in the field to determine the most suitable certification for your data protection goals.

Best Data Protection Certification

The Certified in Data Protection (CDP)® designation is a registered mark of the Identity Management Institute which addresses data protection risks with a focus on generally accepted global data security standards and privacy principles.

CDP is considered the best data protection certification because it combines data security and privacy to comprehensively and cohesively address all data protection and privacy risks that may reside inside or outside of the computer systems. Other information security certifications may be focused on specific aspects of data protection and offer limited value. For example, some information security certifications focus on system security risks, or just address privacy of consumer information, or focus on the management aspect of information protection. Although specialized certifications offer in depth value within the scope of their programs, a comprehensive data protection training and certification program such as CDP is required and necessary for professionals who increasingly deal with many interconnected and global information security and privacy compliance risks.

Also, many of the global data security standards and privacy laws overlap to some extent which are addressed cohesively in the comprehensive CDP data protection certification program to educate candidates on how to address risks and compliance requirements efficiently. We believe that once CDP candidates understand the data protection risks as well as the risk management processes, they can then leverage the industry best practices and standards to design their data protection strategies and incident management plans to manage their unique risks and meet the regulatory requirements.

CDP Data Protection and Privacy Certification Scope

Identity Management Institute is the independent international organization that developed and administers the CDP designation and uses Critical Risk Domains (CRDs) to maintain the CDP training program and certify professionals worldwide. The following CRDs are based on international standards which form the basis for managing the CDP program:

  1. Governance and Management
  2. Risk Assessment
  3. Access Controls
  4. System Security
  5. Vendor Risks
  6. Incident Management
  7. Operations Security
  8. Privacy & Compliance
  9. Data Management
  10. Business Continuity

Visit the CDP page to download the program overview document and the study guide table of contents.

CDP Data Protection and Privacy Certification Cost

The CDP data protection certification cost is $395 for existing members which includes the study guide and examination, and the annual membership fee is $95.


Data security is crucial in today’s digital age because data is a valuable asset for individuals, businesses, and organizations. Breaches in data security can lead to financial losses, damage to reputation, legal consequences, and the exposure of sensitive information. Therefore, organizations must invest in robust data security measures and certified professionals to protect their data and the data of their customers and stakeholders.

The CDP data protection training and certification program is considered the best international data protection certification due to its unique design that consolidates generally accepted international data security standards and privacy principles.

Certified in Data Protection
Apply for data protection certification – online study guide and exam
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Account masquerading threats also known as account impersonation is a security term that refers to the act of one user or entity operating as a legitimate identity or online account. This can occur for malicious purposes or as part of legitimate administrative or debugging tasks, depending on the context.

Account masquerading is one of the identity management threats facing businesses and individuals to spread fake news, execute fraud schemes, steal information, and even commit a crime. This article discusses account masquerading threats and types, risks facing businesses and individuals, steps to prevent account masquerading, how to detect fake accounts, and steps to take when account masquerading incidents occur.

Managing Account Masquerading Threats

General Account Masquerading Types

Here are a few scenarios where account masquerading might take place:

Malicious Activity: Cybercriminals may attempt to masquerade as legitimate users to gain unauthorized access to systems, data, or services. This can lead to data breaches, identity theft, or other forms of cyberattacks.

Administrative or Support Tasks: In a legitimate context, system administrators or customer support personnel may use account masquerading to temporarily assume the identity of a user to diagnose and resolve issues or investigate complaints. This is typically done for legitimate purposes and with proper authorization.

Testing and Debugging: Developers and testers may employ account masquerading to simulate user interactions and test various features or security mechanisms of a system.

Account Masquerading Threats and Risks

Account masquerading, whether it occurs maliciously or unintentionally, poses several significant risks to individuals, organizations, and systems. These risks include:

Unauthorized Access: One of the most immediate risks is that an attacker gains unauthorized access to sensitive information, systems, or services by impersonating a legitimate user. This can result in data breaches, loss of confidentiality, and theft of sensitive data.

Data Theft and Manipulation: Masquerading can lead to the theft, manipulation, or deletion of critical data. Attackers can misuse this access to alter records, commit intellectual property theft, or execute a  financial fraud scheme.

Identity Theft: In cases where personal information is compromised, masquerading can lead to identity theft. Attackers can use stolen identities for fraudulent activities, opening bank accounts, obtaining credit, or committing other crimes under the victim’s name.

Privilege Escalation: If an attacker successfully masquerades as a privileged user or administrator, they may gain access to systems and data that are normally off-limits. This can result in the compromise of entire networks or systems.

Damage to Reputation: Organizations can suffer reputational damage if it’s discovered that they allowed unauthorized account masquerading or failed to prevent it. Trust in the organization’s security practices can be eroded.

Regulatory and Legal Consequences: Depending on the jurisdiction and industry, unauthorized account masquerading can lead to legal repercussions. Organizations can be faced with penalties, lawsuits, and fines, for not protecting user data and privacy.

Data Integrity Issues: Account masquerading threats can lead to data integrity problems. Attackers may modify or delete data, leading to errors in records, financial transactions, and other critical processes.

Resource Misuse: Attackers who masquerade as legitimate users can misuse resources such as computing power, network bandwidth, and storage, potentially causing service degradation or denial of service attacks.

Compromise of Other Accounts: Once an attacker gains access to one user’s account, they may use it as a steppingstone to compromise other accounts or systems within the organization.

Loss of Trust: Users may lose trust in an organization’s ability to protect their accounts and data if they learn that unauthorized masquerading has occurred. This can result in mistrust or loss of customers and other business associates.

To mitigate these risks, organizations should implement strong security practices, including robust authentication methods, access controls, monitoring systems, and employee training to recognize and report suspicious activity. Additionally, regular security audits and assessments can help identify control weaknesses in the system that could be used in account masquerading scams.

Spreading Fake News with Account Masquerading Attacks

Spreading fake news or disinformation may be one of the direct risks associated with account masquerading threats. While account masquerading primarily involves impersonating another user or entity within a system, often for unauthorized access or malicious purposes, the concept of spreading fake news or gossip while impersonating valuable profiles is a legitimate purpose in some cases:

Account Compromise for Spreading Fake News: If an attacker successfully masquerades as a legitimate user, they might use that compromised account to spread fake news or disinformation within a specific platform or social network. In this case, account masquerading facilitates the dissemination of fake news, but the primary risk is still the unauthorized access and misuse of the account.

Identity Theft for Spreading Fake News: Identity theft, which can result from account masquerading threats, can also be a precursor to spreading fake news or disinformation. An attacker who steals someone else’s identity may use that identity to lend credibility to false information.

Combination of Techniques: In some sophisticated disinformation campaigns, attackers may use a combination of account masquerading, identity theft, and fake accounts to amplify their messages and create a more convincing facade of legitimacy.

While account masquerading itself is a risk to the integrity and security of a system, the act of spreading fake news or disinformation is a separate issue that involves the dissemination of false or misleading information by impersonating a credible person or company, often with the intent to deceive or manipulate. Addressing the risk of spreading fake news typically involves strategies such as fact-checking, media literacy education, content moderation, and platform policies to combat the spread of misinformation and disinformation.

Targeting High Profile Individuals and Businesses

Account masquerading, especially when targeting high-profile individuals and businesses, can pose even greater risks and concerns. When malicious actors specifically focus on prominent targets, the potential consequences and the level of damage that can occur are often amplified. Here are some reasons why account masquerading threats facing high-profile individuals and businesses is particularly concerning:

Reputation Damage: High-profile individuals and businesses have reputations to uphold. An attack that compromises their accounts or impersonates them can lead to significant damage to their public image, trustworthiness, and brand value.

Financial Impact: High-profile individuals and businesses often handle substantial financial assets and transactions. Unauthorized access to their accounts can result in substantial financial losses.

Sensitive Information Exposure: Prominent figures and organizations may possess sensitive information, such as trade secrets, financial records, or confidential data. Account masquerading threats can lead to the exposure of this information, which can be exploited by competitors or malicious actors.

Targeted Attacks: Attackers targeting high-profile targets may have specific motives, such as extortion, blackmail, or corporate espionage. Account masquerading threats can serve as a steppingstone for more advanced and targeted attacks.

Crisis Management: When a high-profile individual or business falls victim to account masquerading, the ensuing crisis can be challenging to manage. Swift and effective response measures are crucial to mitigate reputational damage and potential legal issues.

Impact on Followers and Customers: High-profile individuals often have a large following or customer base. If their accounts are compromised and used to spread false information, it can affect a wide audience and lead to confusion or panic among their followers or customers.

Legal and Regulatory Consequences: High-profile individuals and businesses may be subject to greater legal and regulatory scrutiny. A security breach involving account masquerading can result in investigations, fines, or lawsuits.

Social Engineering and Phishing: Attackers targeting high-profile individuals may employ sophisticated social engineering techniques and spear-phishing campaigns to gain access to their accounts. These attacks can be extremely hard to detect and prevent.

To mitigate the risks of account masquerading against high-profile individuals and businesses, robust security measures should be in place, including multi-factor authentication (MFA), regular security audits, employee training, and incident response plans. Additionally, public figures and organizations should be vigilant about their online presence, closely monitor their accounts, and educate their followers and customers about how to spot potential impersonation or phishing attempts.

Preventing Account Masquerading Attacks

Preventing account masquerading or unauthorized access, is crucial for maintaining the security and integrity of user accounts and systems. Here are some effective measures that can be taken to prevent account masquerading:

Strong Authentication: Implement MFA when possible. MFA adds an additional layer of security by requiring users to provide additional forms of verification before gaining access to their accounts.

Password Policies: Enforce strong password policies, including minimum length, complexity, and periodic password change. Encourage users to avoid using easily guessable passwords or using the same passwords across many accounts.

User Training and Awareness: Educate users about the risks of phishing and social engineering tactics that can lead to account masquerading. Teach users how to recognize phishing attempts and suspicious emails.

Access Controls: Implement robust access controls and permissions to ensure that users have limited access to the resources and data they need for their job roles. Regularly review and update access privileges as needed.

Monitoring and Logging: Implement extensive logging and monitoring systems to detect suspicious activities and potential signs of account masquerading. Create alerts to be notified of unauthorized login attempts and activities.

Account Lockouts and Suspicious Activity Detection: Implement account lockout policies that temporarily disable accounts after a preassigned number of failed logins. Employ automated systems to detect patterns of suspicious activity, such as multiple login failures, and take appropriate action.

Security Updates and Patch Management: Keep software, operating systems, and applications up to date with the latest security patches and updates. Control weaknesses in outdated systems can be used by hackers.

User Verification: Establish procedures for verifying the identity of users who request account changes, password resets, or sensitive information. Ensure that requests for sensitive actions are validated through a secure and trusted process.

Incident Response Plan: Develop and maintain an incident response plan to outline procedures in case of a suspected account masquerading incident. Educate employees about incident response and reporting procedures.

User Account Review: Regularly review user accounts to delete or deactivate accounts that are not needed. Conduct periodic audits of user access and privileges.

Encryption: Use encryption for data in transit and at rest to protect critical data from theft and unauthorized access.

Third-Party Security: If third-party services or vendors have access to your systems, ensure they adhere to strict security practices and access controls.

Penetration Testing and Security Audits: Perform periodic penetration tests and audits to identify security control weaknesses in your systems and address them proactively.

Legal and Regulatory Compliance: Ensure compliance with relevant data protection and privacy regulations, as non-compliance can lead to security breaches and account masquerading incidents.

Preventing account masquerading is a continuous process that requires a combination of technical controls, user training, and a proactive security stance. Regularly assessing and updating security measures is essential to staying ahead of evolving threats. To prevent malicious account masquerading, organizations often implement strong authentication and authorization controls, such as MFA multi-factor authentication and strict access controls. Additionally, audit logs and monitoring systems can help detect and mitigate unauthorized account masquerading attempts.

Steps to Manage Account Masquerading Incidents

Dealing with account masquerading incidents effectively is crucial to minimize damage, maintain user trust, and prevent further unauthorized access. Here are the steps to take when you encounter an account masquerading incident:

Isolate and Contain the Incident: As soon as the incident is detected, isolate the affected account or system to prevent further unauthorized access. Disable or lock the compromised account to prevent the attacker from using it.

Document the Incident: Keep detailed records of all steps taken during the incident management process, including the time and date of detection, initial assessment, and any communication related to the ongoing incident.

Investigate the Incident: Determine the scope and extent of the account masquerading incident. Identify how the attacker gained access, what actions they took, and what data or resources were compromised.

Notify Affected Users: Inform the legitimate account owner(s) about the unauthorized access and any potential exposure of their data. Provide guidance to affected users on what steps they should take to secure their accounts, such as changing passwords and enabling multi-factor authentication.

Change Credentials and Secure the Account: Change the compromised account’s credentials, including passwords and access keys. Ensure that the account is secured before it is reactivated or restored.

Assess the Impact: Evaluate the potential impact of the incident on your organization, including data breaches, reputational damage, and regulatory compliance issues.

Patch Vulnerabilities: Address any vulnerabilities or weaknesses that contributed to the account masquerading incident. Apply patches and updates to software or systems to prevent future attacks.

Improve Security Controls: Review and enhance your security controls, such as access management, authentication mechanisms, and monitoring systems, to prevent similar incidents in the future.

Incident Response Team: Assign an incident response team to investigate and respond to the incident. Delegate clear roles and responsibilities to all team members.

Law Enforcement and Legal Considerations: Sometimes, it may be necessary to involve law enforcement, especially if the incident involves criminal activity. Comply with legal and regulatory reporting requirements, as necessary.

Communication Plan: Develop a communication plan for addressing the incident with internal and external parties, including customers, partners, and regulatory bodies. Ensure that your organization communicates transparently and responsibly about the incident.

Post-Incident Review: Conduct a thorough post-incident review to analyze what went wrong and what improvements can be made to prevent similar incidents in the future. Update your incident response plan and security policies based on lessons learned.

User Awareness and Training: Reinforce user awareness and training programs to educate employees, customers, and users about the risks of account masquerading threats and how to recognize phishing attempts.

Continuous Monitoring and Detection: Implement ongoing monitoring and threat detection mechanisms to identify and respond to account masquerading attempts more quickly.

Legal and Regulatory Compliance: Comply with data protection and privacy regulations by reporting the incident to relevant authorities, if required.

Account masquerading threats and incidents can vary in complexity, so the response should be tailored to the specific circumstances of the incident. A timely and thorough incident response is crucial to minimize the impact and prevent similar occurrences.

Security Measures Against Account Masquerading for Individuals

Detecting masqueraded accounts, where an attacker impersonates a legitimate user or entity, can be challenging but is essential for maintaining security. Here are some strategies and techniques to help people detect masqueraded accounts:

Check for Unusual Activity: Be vigilant for any unexpected or unusual activity on your accounts, such as unauthorized logins, changes to account settings, or unfamiliar transactions.

Verify Sender Information: Examine email sender addresses carefully. Ensure that email addresses and domain names match what you expect from the legitimate sender.

Use Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA): Enable MFA on your accounts when possible. MFA adds an additional layer of security for verification beyond just a password.

Inspect URLs and Links: Hover over links in emails and messages to see the actual URL before clicking. Confirm that the URL is consistent with the actual and original website’s domain.

Look for Phishing Indicators: Be wary of emails or messages that contain spelling errors, grammatical mistakes, or generic greetings. Watch out for urgent or suspicious requests for personal data, passcodes, or financial information.

Contact the Alleged Sender Directly: If you receive a message from a person or organization that seems unusual or suspicious, contact them directly by obtaining their contact information through legitimate sources such as the company website.

Examine Social Media Profiles: Check the profiles of individuals or entities on social media to see if they have a verified badge or checkmark, which indicates authenticity. Be cautious of profiles with a low number of followers or limited activity.

Verify Account Activity Logs: Review your account activity logs and login history regularly to spot any unauthorized access.

Use Security Software: Install reputable antivirus and anti-malware software on your devices to help detect and block malicious activity.

Stay Informed: Stay up-to-date on common phishing and masquerading techniques by reading security blogs, news, and advisories.

Educate Yourself and Others: Learn about social engineering techniques and educate your team members to recognize and report suspicious activity.

Trust Your Instincts: If something doesn’t feel right or you have doubts about the legitimacy of a message or request, trust your instincts and take precautions.

Report Suspicious Activity: Most organizations have mechanisms in place for reporting suspicious activity or phishing attempts. Use these channels to report masquerading incidents.

Implement Secure Password Practices: Use a different password for each account, and consider using a password management software.

Regularly Change Passwords: Change your passwords periodically, particularly for high-risk accounts, to reduce the risk of unauthorized access and damage.


Detecting masqueraded accounts requires a combination of vigilance, awareness, and a healthy dose of skepticism. By adopting the practices highlighted in this article and staying informed about common masquerading tactics, individuals can better protect themselves from falling victim to impersonation and phishing attempts.

In cases where account masquerading is necessary for legitimate purposes, it should be conducted with proper oversight, access controls, and logging to ensure that it is not abused or misused. Unauthorized account masquerading is a serious security risk and can lead to legal consequences, including violations of privacy laws and regulations.

Identity and access management certifications
Identity Management Institute on LinkedIn

This article summarizes the requirements of California Privacy Rights Act (CPRA) which is a revision to the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) that was passed in November 2020.

Requirements of California Privacy Rights Act

Requirements of California Privacy Rights Act

The regulation went into effect on January 1, 2023. Some of the key requirements of the CPRA include:

  • The right to know: Consumers have the right to request and receive information about the personal data that a business has collected about them, including the categories of data, the source of the data, and the purpose for which it is being used.
  • The right to delete: Consumers can request organizations to remove any personal information that it collects about consumers.
  • The right to opt-out of the sale of personal data: Consumers can prevent the sale of their personal data by a business. This includes the right to prevent targeted advertising.
  • The right to non-discrimination: Businesses cannot discriminate consumers when they exercise their rights under the CPRA. This includes refusing goods and services, offering different prices, or providing a different service levels.
  • Data minimization: Businesses must minimize the personal data they collect and retain.
  • Stronger security requirement: Businesses must maintain adequate security controls to secure personal data.
  • Limited retention period: Businesses must limit the retention of personal data to what is necessary for the purposes for which it was collected.
  • New rights for minors: Consumers under the age of 16 must provide affirmative approval before their personal information can be collected, used, or shared.

The CPRA also designates a new California Privacy Protection Agency to enforce the regulation and offer guidance to businesses on compliance.

How is CPRA different from CCPA

The California Privacy Rights Act (CPRA) is a revision to the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) that expands upon and improves the consumer privacy rights and protections established by the CCPA.

Some key differences between the CCPA and CPRA include:

  1. The CPRA expands the term “personal information” to include new elements such as geolocation information, biometric data, and internet or other digital activity information.
  2. The CPRA requires businesses to notify consumers about the personal data they collect, including the categories of sources from which the data was collected and the specific data elements that the business has collected about the consumer.
  3. The CPRA gives consumers the right to request companies to remove any personal data that they have collected about them, whereas the CCPA only requires businesses to disclose what personal data they collect and how they use it.
  4. The CPRA requires businesses to minimize the personal data they collect and retain and to implement and maintain appropriate security controls to protect personal data.
  5. The CPRA includes stronger provisions for data protection for sensitive personal information and for the rights of minors.
  6. The CPRA creates a new California Privacy Protection Agency to enforce the regulation and provide support to businesses on compliance.

CPRA’s goal is to provide stronger consumer privacy rights and protections, and to give California consumers more options to control their personal information.

What policy changes should companies implement to comply with CPRA

Companies should implement a number of policy changes in order to comply with the California Privacy Rights Act (CPRA). Some key changes that companies may need to make include:

  • Updating their privacy policy: Companies should update their privacy policy to include the new rights and requirements established by the CPRA, such as the right to know, the right to delete, and the right to opt-out of the sale of personal data.
  • Creating a new process for handling consumer requests: Companies must be able to handle consumer requests to know and delete personal data, as well as requests to opt-out of the sale of personal data.
  • Reviewing and updating their data collection and retention practices: Companies should review the types of personal data they collect and how long they retain it. They should minimize the data they collect and retain and ensure that it is only collected and retained for a specific, legitimate purpose.
  • Reviewing and updating their targeted advertising practices: Companies should review and update their targeted advertising practices to ensure that they are in compliance with the CPRA’s opt-out requirements.
  • Reviewing and updating their practices for handling data of minors: Companies should review and update their practices for handling data of minors to ensure that they are in compliance with the CPRA’s requirement for affirmative consent.
  • Training employees: Companies should train their employees on the new requirements of the CPRA, including the new rights of consumers and the new compliance obligations of the company.
  • Monitoring and reporting: Companies should monitor their compliance with the CPRA and report any violations of the law to the California Privacy Protection Agency.
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