Context-based identity management is another security layer to consider if you are looking to improve the security of your organization’s systems/data and protect yourself from cyber intrusions. Many organizations use biodata to manage identities and secure systems. With the evolution of cyber attacks and intrusion tools, old identity management practices are slowly becoming outdated and unable to handle cyber threats as attacks targeting organizations are increasing and becoming sophisticated. Don’t be stuck in the world of fixed data user management.

Context-Based Identity Management



In 2021 alone, some organizations in the United States of America suffered various major attacks including Colonial pipeline, one of the largest gas and pipeline companies, and JBS Meat Processing and Supply Company. According to various news outlets, JBS had to pay $11 million in a ransomware attack.

Context-Based Identity Management

In most cybersecurity breaches, there is always the problem of fraudulent entry or unauthorized access to a computer systems through various means that may include identity theft. Context-based identity management is the process of collecting identity related data to create an extended identity for a person which can be used for a variety of purposes in identity management.


Although most companies are improving their cybersecurity capabilities to face evolving cyber threats, cybercriminals are evolving at an even faster rate. This is where context-based identity management comes in. essentially, instead of having to authenticate identities using the old methods of username and password, we can use more complex authentication systems such as context-based authentication.

What Is Context-Based Authentication?

Context-based authentication is not a new concept, however, it may not be deployed in many organizations. It involves using extended user data to verify identity and grant access. If you are a regular user of your computer browser application, you have probably come across this technology where your search engine results and websites are customized for you. For instance, you probably have noticed that each time you try to make a purchase, there is a particular list of customized products for you. Now, most browsers and mobile applications have been ‘fitted’ with artificial intelligence capabilities that can learn about:

• Your preferences
• Sites that you visit frequently
• The physical locations that you frequent – hotels, schools, residences, and many more.
• Credit and debit card usage
• Travel
• Type of mobile phones and computers that you use
• The IP addresses and locations of your frequently used devices
• Frequently contacted persons
• Music preferences
• Purchase behavior

These user data can be used for a variety of marketing and identity management purposes including improved authentication.

Privacy Implications

As context-based information involves the collection of many personal information, privacy advocates consider context-based data private information and great risk to privacy and personal freedoms. However, context-based information makes each person unique and different. In addition, with the policies and data protection regulations that have been placed, the data collection requires permission from the users. This ensures that privacy is not infringed, and the information collected is relevant and used for intended purpose.

How Does It Work?

Apart from protecting your organization, context-based data also gives you information about your clients and how they conduct business online. Many successful organizations attribute their success to a better understanding of their customers. Currently, the fact that the world is a global village is accentuated because almost everybody owns either a mobile phone or a computer. In the past, these devices did not carry much functionality.

Considering changing tides and the increased need for security and better business performance, personal devices have been fitted with technology that protects users while at the same time learns about their personal preferences and activities. Basically, in the course of using these device, the following data might be collected:

• Address of your device – mostly the IP address
• Geographical location
• Personal info such as age and gender
• Device usage history
• Purchases and sales history
• Transaction history
• Calls and messaging history
• Language of communication

Data Mining

Data mining is the science of collecting data related to a particular identity. Currently, data mining practices have evolved to include artificial intelligence machines that use algorithms to collect and group data. Currently, data mining is widely used in various institutions such as:


• Insurance organizations
• Banking institutions
• Communication organizations
• Credit card organizations
• Government institutions

Artificial Intelligence

Essentially, artificial intelligence is the art of getting machines to think and act like humans. Like with a human child, artificial intelligence requires extensive training and learning process to work well. Currently, this technology has been included in most of the devices and applications that we use. In practice, artificial intelligence can be used to learn and evaluate patterns in our daily life. Consequently, this creates a personalized database for each person which can serve many purposes.

Context-Based Identity Management and AI

In effective identity management, collecting and using all the relevant information about a particular person is important in order to verify and understand the person. Artificial intelligence helps with speedy analysis and simulation of human behavior through the accumulated data. In essence, as AI learns about a particular person, it creates an expanded identity that can be used to identify and manage that person. AI uses certain differentiating factors relevant to the personal behavior and information which can also be used for identity management.

Why Is Context-Based Identity Management with Artificial Intelligence Important?

Protecting systems, data, and users against identity theft, fraud, and intrusions is critical in maintaining the credibility of your organization. The cost of protection against cyberattacks is often less than the cumulative cost of major attacks that result in lengthy investigations, non-compliance fines, and lawsuits.

The benefits of context-based identity management include:


• Evaluation of a user transaction against the created identity. For instance, AI may evaluate how often the client transacts and from where, travel habits, and the amount of money involved in the transaction. If the particular transaction is not in line with the normal transaction behavior, it is declined.
• Protected login and data manipulation. With AI, your systems can detect an intrusion by evaluating the IP addresses, the recognized device’s MAC addresses, the device’s physical location, and device use history. For instance, if you live in the US and have logged in to an account, another attempted login in Dubai or Japan will raise red flags and prevent the login.
• Data protection. In this age, data privacy has become exceedingly important. Data protection ensures the credibility of information and the security of all persons involved. In addition, it gives parties involved privacy and security.
• Protection against identity theft. With context-based identity management, stealing a person’s username and password will no longer work. Typically, this has been the longest-serving loophole that gives any person the ability to intrude someone else’s life. Essentially, even a person without much hacking knowledge can use the username and password to mess things up.

Cyber threats are evolving with each passing hour. However, with another layer of security to protect identities in your organization, you can better secure systems and data. Context-based identity management may not be the holy grail for staving off cyber-attacks, however, it gives your systems the ability to withstand certain types of cyber-attacks.

The Takeaway

Context-based user management is the next generation of identity and access management which leverages big data and artificial intelligence to better secure systems. If you are already using multi-factor authentication, adding context-based identity management will make your system’s security more robust.

Top Identity and Access Management Certifications
Top Identity and Access Management Certifications

There are many obituary death announcement scams and fraud risks that we must consider when one of our loved ones dies and we decide to make public announcements. This is mainly because scammers and con artists are always looking for easy targets to steal their identities and commit various types of scams and fraud. A dead person is less likely to monitor account activities and respond to suspicious and fraudulent activities.

There are many obituary death announcement scams and fraud risks that we must consider when one of our loved ones dies and we decide to make public announcements.

Many families opt to write an obituary or death announcement when a family member has passed. Traditionally, this act serves to celebrate the decedent’s life and memory. However, even the best intentions can come with some dangers. Before preparing your family members’ obituary, take a moment to educate yourself on the risks involved.

Obituary Scams

In recent years, obituary or death announcement scams, also known as bereavement scams, have become common. For this type of scam, con artists peruse obituaries for biographical information, such as birthdates, hometowns, and names of children, which they can use to commit various forms of fraud. Some examples include:

  • Accessing personal bank accounts
  • Opening lines of credit
  • Obtaining healthcare
  • Filing fraudulent tax returns

Obituaries are normally published during the grieving process, when families are often too distracted to monitor the dead person’s financial accounts. Fraudsters love stealing the identities of dead people, and obituaries let them know when it’s the right time to strike their victims. Therefore, publicly announcing a family member’s death before understanding the risks can expose you, your loved ones, and your dearly departed to a form of identity theft.

Imposter scams

Like most other scams, money is the primary motivation for obituary fraud. In the event of a death in the family, it isn’t just the decedent’s personal finances that become vulnerable. Surviving family members, friends, and professional connections can become targets as well.

For some scammers, obituary fraud may be just the first phase of their scheme. The chaos and disorganization following death provides the perfect opportunity for fraudsters to victimize surviving spouses or other family members by pretending to be debt collectors, government agents, or life insurance agents. Whoever they may be impersonating, their goal is always to convince their victims to pay up. Have you ever received vague social media messages from persons that you have known a long time ago but never communicated with each other until you received the message? Although this may be a legitimate communication, chances are the person is dead or the account has been hijacked.

Elder fraud

Elderly people are especially vulnerable to obituary fraud. A tendency to be overly trusting and financially stable makes this group an attractive target for criminals. Obituaries can provide direct access to the seniors in a grieving family. They can also be used to aid in a grandparent scam, when a fraudster impersonates a family member to gain their victims’ sympathy and eventually, money.

FEMA scam

The post-2020 environment has given rise to yet another way for fraudsters to commit fraud. Thanks to the pandemic, an obituary can alert scammers if a person died of COVID-19 . That scammer then impersonates a government agent or representative of FEMA, a government agency that offers funeral aid to victims of coronavirus. Usually, the scammer will claim that additional personal information will be needed before aid is dispensed. Then, that information is subsequently used to commit identity fraud.

Obituary Death Announcement Scam Warning Signs

No two scammers operate in the same way. However, there are some red flags that may indicate you’ve been targeted for a bereavement scam. Some signs to watch out for are:

  • Phone calls, texts, or emails rather than official mail from government agents
  • Debt collectors who stress “immediate” payment or use scare tactics
  • Being instructed to pay debt via wire transfer or gift cards
  • Bills for credit activity after account holder’s death
  • Any unsolicited communication, specially vague messages from imposters pretending to be someone you know

How to Protect Yourself From Obituary Death Announcement Scams

While writing the obituary

Understandably, writing someone’s obituary is a huge responsibility that requires careful planning and thought. Not only do you have to condense an entire person’s life to a few paragraphs, you must also honor their memory with “just enough” personal details while preventing identity fraud at the same time.

The best way to protect your loved ones’ personal information is to think like a scammer. Birthdates, mother’s maiden names, middle names, and street addresses are common details that can be used to access accounts. State the decedent’s age but avoid announcing their actual birthday. Also, avoid announcing the time and place of the funeral in the obituary, which can alert burglars to when your family members’ homes will likely be empty.

While grieving

Contact credit bureaus, financial institutions, the IRS, and the Social Security Administration right away to notify them that your loved one has died. A few months after your loved one passes, obtain a copy of their credit report to check for any activity after their death. Be wary of any long-lost relatives, friends, and professional contacts who seem to appear “out of nowhere,” especially if they contact you through social media with vague messages. Finally, avoid paying any debts until you’ve verified their legitimacy. In most cases, family members aren’t liable for paying the debts of a deceased person.

Certified Identity Protection Advisor (CIPA) consumer identity theft certification
Become a Certified Identity Protection Advisor (CIPA)

Enterprise Security Magazine listed Identity Management Institute as a top identity and access management organization in 2021. IMI provides thought leadership, training, and professional certification to its global members, and was the first organization of its kind established in 2007 to offer independent certifications in 8 separate IAM sub-domains.

Top identity and access management organization

The importance of identity and access management has increased in recent years for many reasons including greater cybersecurity, data breach prevention, and operational efficiencies for managing digital identities and system access. Increasing remote workforce specially after the Covid-19 pandemic, Internet of Things, as well as cloud computing and storage are among some of the top factors for the rising importance of IAM. Learn about other factors contributing to the rise of IAM.

In particular, data breach incidents have been attributed to poor access management and employee error who unwittingly shar their access credentials with hackers who steal their passwords mainly through social engineering. It is estimated that companies spend hundreds of millions of dollars to deal with the aftermath of data breach cases such as investigation, legal expenses, data recovery, compliance, media relations, and compensation to affected parties.

This is why IAM concepts such as Zero Trust have emerged as key solutions for preventing data breach and unauthorized access. Identity Management Institute was among the first organizations to write about the security risk and benefits of blockchain technology, cryptocurrency and decentralized finance, IoT, automated cars and robots, as well as the importance of Artificial Intelligence in timey prevention and detection of unauthorized access.

These major industry changes have resulted in a shortage of certified identity management professionals who understand the technical aspects or developing, implementing, and managing IAM products and solutions.

Top Identity and Access Management Organization

The professional certifications offered by Identity Management Institute offer specialized training and niche certifications in a bite size format to reduce cost, speed up the learning process, and fast-track certification for candidates.

The significance of Certified Identity and Access Manager (CIAM) certification program was also mentioned by the Enterprise Security Magazine as the leading IAM certification for identity professionals who manage risks in the ever-expanding identity and access management industry. Read the Enterprise Security article about CIAM certification.

Our member testimonials page offers a glimpse of what some of our members say about IMI’s certification programs. Join our community to share your knowledge, gain expertise, and increase your professional standing in the marketplace.

Third party vendor risk management should be a main priority for companies that outsource all or some of their IT and business services to third party service providers in order to reduce costs, leverage external expertise, and focus on their craft. As they say, “the main thing should always be to keep the main thing, the main thing”.

Third Party Vendor Risk Management

As companies place their trust in others to serve them and ultimately their customers, they must have some assurance that the vendors providing support services are managing the risks properly and meeting compliance and regulatory expectations. From a governance standpoint, vendors should not be in a position to dictate a company’s policies although vendors can help shape the policies and standards with their exposure to industry best practices.

This article is about the risks that arise when engaging a vendor to support a business process or outsourcing some functions which must be managed.

Relationship Risks

Companies are ultimately liable for the protection of their client data and quality of services that they provide to their clients whether they outsource some or all of their services. Companies must also ensure compliance with regulatory and industry requirements such as privacy as part of their services. In the normal course of business operations, companies are pretty good at managing their risks by identifying, prioritizing and mitigating them. However, businesses might be a little less concerned with risks that they assign to their third part service providers when they outsource. Thus, companies must shift their thinking when it comes to third party vendor risk management in order to raise awareness the risks which if left unaddressed or unmanaged, can present a variety of negative consequences for companies. This is why service level agreements and data protection clauses are important to make sure vendor risks are managed properly.

Consequences of Poor Third Party Vendor Risk Management

Consequences of unaddressed third-party vendor risks include data breach incidents, lost clients and revenues, lawsuits, negative publicity, damaged company brand, penalties from noncompliance with government regulations, and jail time for executives. Customers are often unaware that their companies outsource their services to third parties but even if they are aware, they would care less as long as they remain confident that their companies take full responsibility for data protection and the quality of services.

Company Role

When outsourcing, companies must maintain control over information security governance, document comprehensive contracts that list vendor responsibilities especially with respect to information security, data access, use or sharing, and perform independent audits to ensure compliance with privacy, information security, and contractual requirements.

Companies must ensure that their established policies and procedures are being followed through employee training and monitoring, but they must also ensure their vendors apply the same level of due care when it comes to managing risks. Information security officers can develop and execute a customized audit program for each selected vendor as part of their annual security plan to assess risks and provide constructive feedback to their executive management regarding vendor policies, procedures and operations.

Information Security Governance

Information security governance should not be confused with information security management. Governance, which must be an internal company function, determines who is authorized to make decisions, specifies the accountability framework, provides oversight to ensure that risks are adequately mitigated, and, ensures that security strategies are aligned with business objectives and consistent with regulations. Information security management, which can be wholly or partly outsourced, is concerned with making decisions, ensuring that controls are implemented to mitigate risks, and recommends security strategies.

National Institute of Standards and Technology or NIST describes information security governance as the process of establishing and maintaining a framework to provide assurance that information security strategies are aligned with and support business objectives, are consistent with applicable laws and regulations through adherence to policies and internal controls and provide assignment of responsibility to manage risks.

Since information must be treated as any other critical asset essential to the survival and success of the organization, information security governance which is a complex and critical function must be elevated to the highest organizational levels. According to Identity Management Institute, governance refers to an organization’s oversight and practices by a committee of the Board of Directors and/or Executive Management to assign a chief information security officer, provide strategic direction, approve the information security program, support the CISO to achieve its objectives, and require an annual report regarding the state of information security and compliance.

Vendor Compliance Risks and Beyond

When a company outsources some services to a vendor or multiple vendors, whether it’s for a particular business process, software development, or system management, the company also expects and relies on the vendor to manage the same risks that they would have to manage if they were performing the outsourced activities in-house. For example, vendors are expected to have proper hiring and staff management practices around their employees and contractors, which include full background checks, adequate human resources policies and procedures, and employee training. When internal controls don’t exist or are not functioning properly, then companies can be exposed to some unmanaged risks.

Depending on the nature of the outsourced business process, some services pose greater risks than others. For example, there is usually less risks with an automated service if the system has been properly tested and undergoes limited and less critical changes. On the other hand, if your company is a bank and you outsource loan application processing, you may be exposed to risks in the areas of privacy compliance, system integrity and loan decision accuracy, as well as system security, data backup and protection, disaster recovery and business continuity.

Risk Assurance

There are a few ways that companies can make sure that vendors are properly managing the risks. For example, some of the least expensive risk assurance options include Request For Information (RFI), Standard Information Gathering questionnaires and review of independent audit reports provided by vendors such as SSAE16, FISMA, and ISO audit reports. A more expensive option is to send auditors to examine a specific area in depth. Most companies use a combination of all these options to get comfortable with a vendor’s internal controls but many of these actions depend on how the outsourcing deal was negotiated and what the contracts allow for or prevent a company to do in the area of risk assurance.

Vendor Options for Managing Audit Costs

In order to manage audit costs and prevent all customers to audit as they wish which can lead to enormous time and resource allocation, service organizations should consider undergoing an independent audit and share the results with customers. Even if customers decide to audit vendors at their own expense, there are still many audit support costs that vendors will incur especially if they have thousands of customers. One of the acceptable and most common audit options in the US is the SSAE 16 audit which is also popular due to the increased regulatory oversight of the Sarbanes-Oxley act and customer requirement that their service organizations obtain and submit an independent audit report. Other benefits of an SSAE 16 audit report for vendors includes instant credibility with their customers and perception that the vendors are responsible, independent confirmation by a third-party of their internal controls, and cost savings as the annual audit report can be shared with all clients who ask for it. In addition, a credible independent audit report can satisfy multiple customer audit requests and reduce the number of customer audits.

SSAE 16 Audits

SSAE 16 stands for the Statement on Standards for Attestation Engagements, number 16, which is a recognized third-party assurance audit designed for service organizations. There are two types of SSAE 16 audits. Type one provides the limited assurance at a point of time whereas the SSAE 16 type two provides the highest level of assurance based on a period of time, which includes detailed testing. The scope of the SSAE 16 audits is either decided by the vendor or negotiated as part of the business contracts; however, the usefulness of the audit reports depends on the audits performed around the outsourced services. Some common areas covered in the SSAE 16 audits include employee and contractor management, privacy, identity and access management, information security system developments, data backup and IT operations. The final SSAE 16 audit report is very important to companies because it gives them an independent opinion regarding vendor’s internal controls.

Best Audit Options

Due to their inherent nature, RFIs are less reliable because vendors attest to their own internal controls and there is no independent verification of the assertions. On the other hand, independent audits are more reliable, but they can be expensive. So in order to be cost effective in the vendor assurance process, the high-risk vendors can be identified and audited based on a predetermined audit type and frequency. Companies must determine what constitutes a high-risk vendor and decide what type of audit they will need to perform and how often so they can include audit provisions in the contract.

Audit Costs

Often the companies are required to pay for the audits that they choose to perform and other times vendors cover the audit costs when they complete questionnaires, submit documents for review, and obtain an SSAE16 audit report. Independent audits by third parties can be very expensive, however sometimes vendors cover the costs to satisfy either contractual agreements made with their clients, appear being a good business to attract new customers or retain the existing ones, and reduce the overall audit costs.

Final Thoughts on Third Party Vendor Risk management

For third party vendor risk management, companies must first identify the high-risk vendors, depending on the type of services that they outsource and the data that they share with them. Next, they must decide the type and frequency of assurance methods such as standard information gathering questionnaire, document review, reliance on the SSAE 16 audit report, or, a combination of these methods. However, SSAE6 audit reports are not always available and do not include the critical processes in the audit scope to satisfy customers. One thing to keep in mind is that audit requirements once identified must be coordinated between the legal, vendor management, business, and audit teams for a couple of reasons. First, we want to make sure that there’s an audit clause included in the contract which allows the company to actually audit the vendor as necessary at the company’s discretion, and, allow the security team to schedule resources if they have to audit a particular vendor. And lastly, companies should review the results of the audits and follow up with this service organization to make sure that they remediate the potential findings within the agreed upon time frame.

Certified in Data Protection
Get Certified in Data Protection and Privacy

There are some Multi-Factor Authentication security risks that we have witnessed from recent cybersecurity incidents although MFA is a great method of securing systems and data when properly implemented. MFA improves security because access doesn’t rely solely on weak user passwords, and it could have prevented some of the latest breaches, such as the Colonial Pipeline breach that created fuel shortages across the East Coast of the United States. However, when used improperly or as the sole security method, hackers can still gain access to the corporate systems and data.

Multi Factor Authentication Security Risks and Problems

What is MFA?

MFA is a technology that requires users to verify their identity using multiple authentication methods when logging in or for other transactions. MFA combines two or more credentials from independent categories: What a user knows (such as a password or security question), what the user has (such as their phone, ID care, or a security token), and what the user is (using biometric validation such as fingerprint, face match, or retina scan).

Combining multiple access requirements makes it harder to bypass security. For example, someone may guess your password is your dog’s name and your birth year (bad idea, by the way), or they may have located in another data breach. If they try to hack into your bank account and your bank also requires you to enter a verification code texted to your phone, the hacker’s job is harder.

As mentioned, MFA could have prevented some well-publicized recent breaches. For example, the Colonial Pipeline breach occurred as the result of one breached password. Hackers accessed the system through a VPN (Virtual Private Network) account, which was intended to provide additional security. A simple MFA requirement would likely have prevented this attack. Companies using a VPN connection should require strong authentication with at least two of the authentication factors listed above.

Unfortunately, as companies increase their security requirements, hackers are also adapting their attacks. There have been recent attacks that were able to bypass security systems, including some MFA requirements. For the SolarWinds Orion compromise, for example, attackers stole the single sign-on (SSO) private keys, which allowed them to bypass the MFA checks entirely.

When MFA and SSO portals are combined, there may also be architectural design flaws that keep the protection from working as designed. For example, once a user is initially authenticated, if additional MFA verification is not required when accessing more sensitive systems, this creates a weakness. This weakness could allow a single low-security machine or employee to be compromised once, and then trusted throughout the company’s network. This weakness is further expanded if a company does not grant least-privileged access and allows user access for unnecessary systems.

Multi Factor Authentication Security Risks

There are several approaches hackers use to bypass MFA requirements (such as social engineering, technical attacks, and physical theft), and they often combine multiple methods. Some of the most common, and easily avoidable, multi-factor authentication security risks are described below.

Social media mining is common, such as getting users to play games that reveal personal information on Facebook. Remember what we said about using the dog’s name and your birth year as password? Seemingly innocent posts, games, and pictures provide enough information that, grouped together, provide a wealth of information to hackers. This may be used to help guess your password or answers to security questions, such as the make and model of your first car or your school mascot.

Technical attack examples include malware and Trojans. Cerberus is a Trojan that utilizes Android’s accessibility features such as “enable unknown sources” or “developer options” that allow hackers to enable remote access, escalate user privileges, and install malware on the target systems. Hackers used the Cerberus Trojan to reverse-engineer the Google authentication flow, extract two-factor authentication credentials from mobile apps, and then mimic/bypass the Google Authenticator.

MFA verification solutions using Short Messaging Service (SMS) (text messages) are especially easy for hackers. You’d think a hacker couldn’t defeat this method because you have the phone physically in your hand, but SMS is notoriously easy to break. In fact, the U.S. government has recommended that no MFA solution should include SMS verification tools. The weakness comes because hackers can easily convince the cell provider to transfer your phone to them. Hackers have used this method to steal hundreds of millions of dollars.

Although MFA is a good start, businesses need to do more to secure their systems. Legacy MFA structure relies on a password as the initial security screen. Since the user’s password is typically the least secure step in the system, that weakens the entire security structure. Additional steps such as SMS-confirmation, one-time codes, and so-called “security” questions may slow down a hacker, but it’s often little more than an inconvenience.

Managing Multi-Factor Authentication Security Risks

With all this information about MFA’s weaknesses, does it mean we should scrap MFA completely? Absolutely not. Every layer of security helps, but there are ways to provide additional security. Below we discuss some recommendations for proper MFA use.

Use more secure forms of MFA, such a FIDO, and avoid MFA solutions that rely on SMS. FIDO2 (Fast Identity Online) security keys provide unphishable, standards-based passwordless verification. FIDO combines added security for the company and convenience for the user by relying on a platform key built into the device or an external security key, eliminating the password hassle.

Remember that tricking biometric MFA solutions isn’t that difficult. Fingerprints can be stolen, created in gelatin, and used to bypass scanners. Scanners allow slight variations to account for sweaty fingers or abrasions, for example, which means forgeries don’t have to be all that exact. A Vietnamese security group has created a mask that can trick Apple’s face scan. Biometrics are good, but they shouldn’t be viewed as foolproof.

Combine your MFA with other security methods such as least-privileged access. This process entails giving users only the lowest levels of access necessary to perform their daily tasks, and requires granting additional permissions on an as-needed basis. This restricted access helps reduce risks associated with shared accounts, and if one user gets compromised, it prevents access to more highly secured areas.

Have a plan for lost devices. Anything that a user has, such as a phone or a token, a user can lose. Of course you need to educate users to report lost devices immediately. IT can then expire the current session and require reauthentication for access. The device can be disassociated from the user’s account and therefor the user’s access rights. Finally, in some situations (typically for company-owned devices), the company can remote-wipe corporate from the mobile device.

Regularly reevaluate your MFA procedures because security is a dynamic field. As security procedures evolve, attackers continually change their methods to get around the barriers. Your IT infrastructure may change and create new vulnerabilities. The security environment needs to continually change to keep up with hackers and with your infrastructure changes.

Finally, remember that while MFA makes hacking less likely in some scenarios, it doesn’t mean it’s unhackable. Make sure all your MFA admins understand the potential vulnerabilities, and that they’re familiar with ways MFA solutions are hacked or bypassed. This knowledge helps your company understand the types of threats to your MFA solution, how to recognize weakness, and how to report any potential attacks.

Identity and access management certifications by Identity Management Institute
Learn about leading identity and access management certifications

The main purpose of the secure software development planning is to prepare the organization for any security risks as well as the range of functionality designed to protect the systems. A well-prepared organization is less likely to make critical security errors that cause harm to their clients’ sensitive data.

An informed organization will also be well-prepared to deal with any system malfunctions that may arise in a timely manner. Factors of a well-structured organization include clearly defined roles and responsibilities that dictate each developer’s specific designations, as well as ample amounts of tools and resources to make the implementation easier and more secure for the development team.

Secure Software Development Planning

The following 4 steps must be considered in the secure software development planning phase:

Defining Security Requirements

It is vital that software developers understand the security risks that they face before starting the development process, in order to develop around them. Software developed with all relevant security risks and legality in mind will be better suited for security and compliance, ensuring the safety of all parties involved.

Implementing Clear Roles and Responsibilities

A clear set of roles and responsibilities makes the development process more efficient as well as more transparent. Any malfunctions in the system can be more easily traced back to the source if the members of the development team are held accountable. Accountability also enables developer roles to be updated in accordance with their work. In an organization where everyone’s roles are evaluated and updated accordingly, the team will work more efficiently and logically.

Implementing a Supporting Toolchain

Organizations can implement automated toolchains to enable more secure and accurate security protocols for their developers. The process of automation relieves humans from needing to constantly survey and update the system. Toolchains may be implemented at any level of development (system-wide or simply localized to one project) to assist in the securing process.

Security Criteria for Secure Software Development Planning

Even with automation, it is necessary to manually verify the system on occasion. The checker must know what the code should look like and how it should function, what data should be on it, and be able to identify major security risks. Any accessible data should be used to strengthen this process.

Secure software development planning is within the scope of the Certified Identity Management Professional (CIMP) certification program. Apply for CIMP certification.

This article lists the identity proofing requirements to resolve, validate, and verify any claimed digital identity and any user-supplied identity evidence. The requirements ensure that the claimed identity is the actual real-life identity of the subject attempting to enroll with the Credential Service Provider (CSP) and not an impostor. This ensures that scalable attacks affecting a large population of enrolled individuals require greater time and cost than the value of the resources the system is protecting. Criminals looking to attack a system must go through resolution that distinguishes the requestor, validation of the supplied documentation, and verification that it is linked to a real person.

Identity proofing for Identity Resolution, Validation and Verification

Identity Proofing – Resolution

The goal of identity resolution is to distinguish a user from a given population in the identity proofing cycle. There are plenty of factors that can be used at this step, but effective identity validation should take the least amount of information needed before singling out an individual amongst a group of users. Unique documentation is used in this process as well as knowledge-based verification to connect a claimed digital identity to an existing real life identity. Identity evidence supplied at this stage should be unique to the applicant.

Identity Validation

The purpose of identity validation is to collect the appropriate documentation from a claimant before verifying and confirming it against an existing database. The identity evidence supplied can fall on a scale of strength – from weak to superior. Superior pieces of evidence identify the individual and can be quickly cross checked against secure databases, whereas weak pieces are unverifiable and don’t distinguish a claimant from a user base whatsoever. Depending on the Identity Assurance Level (IAL) and Authenticator Assurance Level (AAL), user evidence must fall under the appropriate strength categories. The highest levels will not accept weak evidence and require superior, verifiable information. Weak documentation also includes any information that can’t be checked for tampering, such as a blurry ID photo.

Identity Verification

After collection and validation of the identity evidence supplied is complete, the final step is to confirm that the claimed digital identity is linked to the real-life existence of the subject. The strongest evidence is supported and reinforced by existing records and databases that can be easily cross-checked. The supplied evidence should match existing records and confirm the legitimacy of the applicant. Knowledge-based verification questions are allowed at this step, but they must be supported by validated identity evidence and may not have answers which stay the same (e.g. what was your first car?). These precautions ensure that all data supplied is trusted, valid and easily verifiable, which creates trust in the application process as well as the local user base.

While blockchain data privacy features can be leveraged to protect consumers such as enabling self-sovereign identity, blockchain technology poses massive security issues to users who are unaware of the technology’s risks. If designed and executed well, however, blockchain can create a complex and completely private network of computers around the world. Blockchain currently faces problems with consumer privacy and safety that have to be worked out before it can become the computational norm. Some of these issues include:

Blockchain data privacy concerns by Identity Management Institute

Public Ledgers and Blockchain Data Privacy

While the public ledger was a core aspect of Bitcoin’s success (anyone could verify transaction records thought the self-perpetuating blockchain) the feature posed and continues to pose problems for Bitcoin (BTC) and all coins that use this method. While the ability for any user to look at every transaction on the blockchain was good for verification, it quickly became a tool for tracking people and their spending habits. Police and criminals can use the blockchain to find people through use of their digital assets. This is where consumer data can get breached. Learn more about blockchain security.

Centralized Blockchains

Consumer data isn’t only accessed and used by outside individuals, however. A fully centralized blockchain would award the owner/creator full control over the users’ data. Blockchains like Cardano (ADA) are fully decentralized, meaning the community controls the project and no one individual or group controls the blockchain. On the other hand, a nationally centralized blockchain would be a dystopian nightmare for any citizens living under it. The first country to implement something like this will most likely be China. Considering the Chinese Communist Party has already implemented a highly monitored and Chinese-exclusive internet and now its own national digital currency, it wouldn’t be unlikely. If Chinese citizens were to be forced to use the blockchain, it would threaten the self-sovereign identity that other blockchains could offer.

However, blockchain and technology built on top of it have revolutionized what privacy means in the field of economics. Bitcoin proved its concept when the coin was used as a P2P (peer-to-peer) cash-sending system like PayPal or Venmo as well as online marketplaces. Sellers of illicit goods on dark web marketplaces like The Silk Road quickly took up BTC for its decentralization and privacy from authority figures. Monero (XMR) takes the technology even further with its use of stealth addresses. By creating encrypted, one-time addresses used to denote interactions between users on the ledger instead of their real wallet addresses, complete consumer privacy can be achieved. This level of security reaches between the user and the network, other users, and any outside onlookers.

One typical area of concern with blockchain data privacy is around digital currency wallets and users’ lack of awareness of data privacy risks such as when renaming the wallet to something personal such as a password which can be visible to everyone on the public blockchain.

Finally, knowledge and control over personal data is the most important blockchain feature for implementing complete consumer privacy and security. As big tech companies continue to monopolize the personal data of internet users, alternatives are invented to protect user data. Where blockchain technology provides absolute security to a networks transactions by writing on immutable data, the Tor project serves as a complimentary web browser that gives total privacy. It does this by sending users through multiple virtual networks before finally landing on the website. However, it is significantly slower than most other web browsers because of this redirecting as well as its indexing. If Tor worked with blockchain tech, users could comfortably leave mainstream browsers that sell their data and censor their search results. Tor could also connect to blockchain-powered ecosystems like digital supply chains to create a safe and knowledgeable shopping experience on the web. This combination of security and privacy would make the perfect space for consumers to safely interact–free from any centralization, users can achieve full privacy and security in their transactions.

Identity and access management certifications by Identity Management Institute
Learn about leading identity and access management certifications

This article explores important considerations for implementing IdM systems such as implementation processes, role-based access management model, and existing IAM services for processing and managing user access.

Important considerations for identity management IdM system implementation

How to form the concept of the project

Let us start with the basic questions that arise at the initial stage of cooperation between the IdM vendor and the customer.

What is the scope of the IdM system implementation project? Should it be as extensive as possible, carry more value but assume a long implementation timeline, or should we focus on the most important tasks that involve rapid implementation?

The scope should demonstrate to the customer the future value of the IdM system implementation. We are talking not only about the top management of the company and employees of the department who are direct recipients of the final solution but also about other departments. Implementation costs are borne by the entire company, so the effect should be clearly visible to all people; otherwise, full personnel involvement can hardly be achieved.

To participate in the implementation, employees of the customer who are not related to IT and information security need to be interested and motivated. The vendor should show them the benefits that they will receive after the implementation of the project. For example, it is advised to include in the project’s automation opportunity of routine operations that are currently being performed in manual mode. This way, the effect of IdM implementation will be more noticeable.

Also, we must not forget that a user friendly web portal, the ability to build clear reports, and other visual aspects are important parts of the implementation. When defining the scope, it is impossible to consider only the technical parts of the project.

The first stage of implementation should include a small number of systems that provide maximum value for the customer. Initial small coverage of the core systems will bring enough benefits to users and administrators.

What IdM implementation approaches are the most promising

How much should the customer and the vendor formalize the implementation parameters? Do you need a strict technical assignment, or is a flexible approach acceptable? How to reconcile the need for changes discovered in the process of project implementation with the initially defined financial and technical parameters?

According to experts, a flexible approach to implementation requires a high level of trust between the vendor and the customer. It is very important to clearly define the project’s boundaries so that it does not turn into an uncontrollable and endless process. You need to clearly define and fix the final goal for the customer and labor costs for the vendor. One of the options is to conduct an agile session/meeting before finalizing a contract in order to determine all technical parameters more accurately.

The implementation process should not be vague for the customer, regular meetings are needed where the parties could discuss the status of the project. Such involvement of the customer representatives will allow them to influence the course of work and will allow the vendor to adjust to a certain extent the expectations of the other party.

When working on the technical requirements and specifications, the vendor must constantly keep the dialogue with the customer and be ready for changes. Usually, it is good to break the implementation process into stages to provide the project with the necessary flexibility without losing sight of the ultimate goal.

A clear technical assignment is needed at the first stage. It is needed to participate in the competitive bidding process and form an initial “scope” that will show the customer the key benefits of your solution. In the future, as trust between parties grows and customer engagement increases, you can try and use informal cooperation.

Method of work can also be determined through a pilot project, during which the customer and the vendor can get to know each other better.

Once again, it is important to emphasize the importance of customer involvement. The client’s team should not remain an outside observer of the implementation process, since they will have to manage the ongoing maintenance of the system.

Is it possible to implement an IdM system without a ready-made role model?

Are there any chances of successful IdM implementation if the customer does not have a developed role model? Is it possible to automate chaos? Is it possible to build the role model during implementation?

Some experts advise starting with a description of the main HR functions – hiring, firing, moving around. This will ensure a good and speedy start for IdM implementation. Further development of the role model and the description of all the business processes can be performed as the project progresses.

Creating a complete role model will require a lot of resources and can significantly increase the time and cost of a project. In addition, the role model often becomes outdated the day after it is agreed upon. There is little point in fixing it at the beginning of implementation. Sometimes it can be convenient to build the role model around the ready-made IdM toolkit, which will allow you to always keep the role model up to date.

How to build a role model

How should the process for defining roles be structured? Should this process be based on historical data and analysis (Role Mining) or business insights obtained through executive surveys, job descriptions, and other tools?

Actually, the best results are obtained by the symbiosis of several methods. Historical data provides insight into the current access matrix, while executive surveys provide insight into how it fits the company’s rights management goals and objectives. Existing permissions on the level of departments and individual employees should be discussed with the owners of business processes in order to cut off unnecessary privileges and, possibly, add new roles.

In order to avoid misunderstandings between the vendor and the customer, it is recommended to negotiate in advance at what stage, by whom, and at whose expense the role model will be created. Role Mining is not a magic button that will help eliminate all the problems, but only a starting point for building a role model.

It is also important to understand how deep the vendor can dive into role management and where the project boundaries lie. For example, should its scope include setting up roles in SAP or another system used by the customer?

The success of the project depends on how well the customer’s employees are trained to create a role model. It is also important to understand that there is no universal method for building a role model. What works for a bank will not work for a manufacturing company. The size of the organization also plays an important role – the smaller the business is, the easier it is to build a role model.

Client side

How are the portals for processing requests organized? Which toolkit is better to use for this built-in IdM tool (like the IT Shop module) or an IT service management (ITSM) portal that the customer has already implemented to process user requests?

These questions can be approached from the point of view of user convenience. If the company has a well-developed service desk (toolkit for working with user requests), which receives requests from disparate systems, then it may be better to integrate the functions of the IdM portal there. When there is no such tool, it makes more sense to use a separate IdM web interface. The process of access granting in Identity Manager can go in two ways:

  • Built-in IdM system algorithms.
  • Built-in algorithms of the external system (not necessarily of the service desk level) with the transfer of the final result to IdM.

It often happens that it is more convenient for the vendor to use the IT Shop, which is part of the Identity Manager, since this way, the vendor can independently develop this portal and be confident in its functions. On the other hand, if the customer has already built an ecosystem of his business processes around a specific service desk, then it is hard to transfer it to the portal of the IdM system.

Of course, it is more convenient for users to have a single service for processing requests; therefore, implementing it through IdM, you may have to duplicate some of the ITSM functions.

The implementation of the portal for processing requests using the IdM system allows you to link the processes associated with access to the events of the HR system, for example, the reassignment of the responsible person in case of dismissal.

Publishing an IT Shop on the Internet makes sense only if business executives regularly need to access these coordination tools. Ordinary users do not need such an opportunity. The only thing that an employee may need from the outside is to reset the password; other access issues when working remotely are solved using a VPN. Another aspect of this problem is the external user registration portal. Make sure to protect it from attackers as phishing, web injects, redirects and other hacker tricks are on the rise. It makes sense to make it as a separate, protected replica of the general interface with limited functions.

Integration

What are the nuances of connecting IdM systems with other solutions used by the customer? Should synchronization with the HR system be event-driven or done with regular intervals or in real-time?

Often, regular synchronization is not much different from event-based synchronization, since events are also piled onto the stack, which is processed at a specified frequency. It is technically possible to implement event-based synchronization in real-time. Still, the use of a queue makes it more convenient to handle numerous user requests, which often happens in large organizations. The less often HR events are processed, the less the risk of transferring an unfinished operation to the IdM system.

Of course, there may be some urgent events (for example, an unplanned dismissal of an employee) that need to be communicated to IdM promptly. For this purpose, there is a specific user blocking option. Customers often want everything to be in real-time; it is possible to explain that they do not need it.

The frequency of contacting the HR system by the IdM system should be set for each organization separately. One of the factors is the load on the HR system. In practice, there are examples of using an intermediate database, which collects information from several systems, for later uploading to IdM.

Continuing the topic of linking IdM with other systems, it is necessary to touch upon the issue of implementing risk and compliance management functions. Such projects are rare. If the customer has already implemented a GRC system, he will most likely refuse to transfer its functions to IdM.

When it comes to integration with other solutions, such as SSO or PAM systems, a properly designed IdM can facilitate the implementation of such solutions. If the customer has not yet implemented SSO or PAM, then it is reasonable to build an architecture for two solutions together and implement them one at a time.

Conclusion

Here are three main advantages of implementing an IdM system. They can be used as a justification for the need for such a solution for the customer.

  1. Reducing the cost of administering access rights by automating routine operations.
  2. Quick employee onboarding, reduction of downtime associated with registration of a new employee.
  3. Increased security by reducing risks (unnecessary rights, access rights left after employee dismissal, etc.).

Identity and access management architects can benefit from the following identity management use cases to improve Identity, Credential, and Access Management (ICAM) practices within their organizations.

The identity management use cases listed for ICAM best practices are approved by the US government as IAM guidelines for various government agencies. These cases involve several factors that contribute to the use and deployment of the use cases. They include the personnel who are part of the ICAM cycle and the systems involved, with a high-level summary of the possible actions. The listed identity management use cases tend to be interrelated, even with each specific ICAM business process. The technologies and activities are generalized in these cases, ensuring their application can be diversified across many organizations. It is important to note that the detailed processes in these identity management use cases are not specific to an organization or department. Every entity should analyze its own systems and processes for alignment with the use cases. Below is comprehensive information on what the use cases entail and how you can use them to your enterprise’s advantage.

Identity Creation and Maintenance

When organizations onboard an employee or a contractor, they collect identity related data from the person, and store pieces of the information as identity attributes which serve as a digital proxy to identify the person within the organization. The attributes will be aggregated into a single identity format to keep individual identities unified.

Federal Identity, Credential, and Access Management Architecture v3.1

The administrator is mainly involved in collecting and managing employee’s identity data throughout the IAM life cycle. The identity information collected doesn’t necessarily have to come directly from the individual. Identity information can also be collected from HR systems, or onboarding documents.

Creating an enterprise identity comes next, with the administrator adding the identity information into the pre-determined data repository. The process results in having an authoritative source for the enterprise identity of the individual. Maintaining the enterprise identity data is essential to keep up with any changes that may affect your organization. Identity maintenance should be performed as often as possible. It is preferable to treat identity maintenance as an ongoing process to avoid missing out on vital data that may negatively affect the IAM lifecycle. The process is imperative, mostly when the individual has updated their personal information. Changes need to be made to maintain an effective identity system. Your identity maintenance’s final process is making updates to your enterprise identity system. There are two ways in which you can make the updates. An administrator can directly update the set authoritative sources, or, allow the individual to use the system to update the information they are changing. The data will automatically update the system on the identity attributes based on the authoritative source.

Proof an Identity

The creation and assigning of a credential to an individual needs some proof of the person’s claimed identity. Also known as identity proofing, it is an essential process through which an organization is involved in collecting and verifying information of an individual so that it can be used to establish an enterprise identity. The Identity Assurance Level (IAL) platform is perfect for determining the critical factors you should consider when conducting identity proofing of the individual.

There are up to three IAL’s that you can use to get the process going. But for federal agencies, there is a minimum requirement of IAL2 for contractors or employees who have recurring access to the government’s resources. With these use cases, IAL1 is not included.

Such use cases mainly describe the steps for proving an identity both at IAL3 and IAL2, which are high-level steps into the process. Some IALs may require more information about the employee, even with other verification processes. Depending on your entity’s processes, you can’t quite know the required IALs until you begin the identity proof process.

Having sufficient information about the individual is important to avoid wasting time in the identity management process. The more information you have at hand, the better it is. The contractor or employee’s information can also be referred to as identity evidence. It may be physical; these are either a driver’s license, birth certificates, passports, or any other valid credential available and verified for use in the IALs.

For the IAL2, the following information may be required:

  • Last name
  • First name
  • Address of record
  • Email address

For this IAL2, all the information must be supported by valid identity documents, and the verification rate should be high. After collecting the identity information, which can be remote or in-person, the administrator will need to confirm the provided information is valid and latest data. Comparison of photo identification may be necessary and the address must match the same information provided in the documents presented.

For the IAL3, the following are some information you will need:

  • Fingerprints
  • Address of record
  • Email Address
  • First name
  • Last name

For the IAL3, all the information must be supported by valid identity documents, and the verification rate should be superior. The administrator has the freedom to make verifications with the issuing organization. This may result in the successful proof of the individual identity at either IAL2 or IAL3.

Entitlement Lifecycle Management

Lifecycle entitlements are assigned to individuals, their roles, and even groups. The entitlements are set to determine access to the agency services by the employed individuals or contractors. If the entitlements are not assigned, the employees don’t have authorized access to the entity’s services. The process is straightforward.

The first step is to initiate the request from the individual. The individual will have to request access to the entity’s services and wait for the administrators’ feedback. The individuals can also join specific groups with access to parts of the entity’s services and directly access what they need. The requestor may be anyone within the firm, such as the supervisor, employee, security personnel, or even a general contractor.

The next step involves a review of the request from the requestor. At this stage, the administrator’s work compares the individual’s request with his access requirements based on their working position. If the requestor qualifies for access to the entitlements and there is a relevant need, the administrator has a green light to approve it.

As soon as the administrator assigns the entitlements to the contractor, they can receive the necessary entitlements without any limitations. However, consider there may be a change in the contractor’s role in the organization. The administrator has the right to change the entitlements as necessary or even terminate the entitlements.

Create and Issue a Credential

Creating credentials for an individual is only possible after completing an individual’s identity proof cycle. Think of the certification as a physical card that gives access to the entity’s services. It is a form of authenticating the individual’s identity to gain access to the system. For contractors and employees, the preferred credential is the Personal Identity Verification (PIV) card.

Just in case the administrator cannot issue a PIV card to the employee, you can use a combination of factors to get to the credentials of the Authenticator Assurance Level 2, also known as (AAL2).

This use case is a three-step process. The first one is to initiate the request. The individual who needs the credentials for access has to provide an identification card issued by the government.

The review process verifies the issued government identification card. The final process is to generate authentication credentials for the employee or contractor. It can work for individuals who need access to buildings and even protected resources for specifically authorized work.

Issue a Derived Credential

A derived credential comes directly from an already existing credential but has a variation in its form factor. This form factor can be a mobile device or any other portable device that can show the credentials. Their derived credentials use the data initially used in the IAL verification process from the existing credentials.

It can have a lower AAL or the same one depending on the individual’s access needs. The derived credential is mainly applicable in areas where the individual needs authentication to have access, but they cannot seem to get it. Leveraging on the derived credential is the best way to gain the same access without the strict authentication requirements.

The individual only needs to have Authenticator Assurance Level 3 or two to use the derived credential when the situation arrives. Obtaining the derived credential is also relatively easy as long as all parties are involved. Initiation of the request is the first step. The individual’s request on the identity data is sent directly to the identity manager for processing.

The identity manager could be a system or a person depending on how a specific organization operates and its resources. After the request, the identity manager needs to authenticate and verify the credential that already exists. The sources for authentication of data retrieved can change from one to another, including personal databases, HR systems, and security data.

The final stage is generating the derived credential for the individual to use. There is a notable change in the enterprise identity record of the user. The derived credential can be applied in different scenarios. It includes the need to authenticate an enterprise’s application by an employee who already has an enterprise credential.

Accessing secure websites through VPN from a remote location is also an example where a derived credential may be necessary.

Managing the Credential Lifecycle in Identity Management Use Cases

Like any other identity management use case, all active credentials need regular maintenance to keep them functioning to their optimum levels. This use case shows the most popular activities for credential maintenance. These are:

  • Resetting a credential – Resetting a credential is applicable when a contractor forgets his identification number or password needed for authentication. The individual will have to request a reset to continue using their credentials.
  • Renewal of credentials – It is necessary to renew an individual’s credentials if expiring and still need to use them. It is also applicable to renew the credentials if the individual’s identity information has changed. In this situation, it is possible to request a replacement credential. It is best to renew the credentials before they expire to avoid the wait time for creating another one.
  • Revoking a credential – When an individual is no longer working with the entity, the administrator needs to request revocation of the individual’s credentials and any other enterprise accounts they may still have access to. The administrator, in this case, can be the supervisor, sponsor, or any other personnel to high-level access.

All administrators should review their employees’ or contractors’ credentials and eligibility to identify data that may be orphaned in the system.

Granting Access in Identity Management Use Cases

The grant access use case mainly entails individuals’ authentication to authorize their agency services access. The agency services can range from files, physical facilities, specific applications, and just about any special resource that needs access.

It involves an Access Control System administrator, also known as (ACS). This administrator’s main function is granting access to the employee as long as they have both an active credential and an enterprise identity. The individual will also have to have a specific reason to access the enterprise’s resources. The following are some of the steps that the individual must undergo to get full access to what they need.

Authentication – Authentication is the first step to getting through the Access Control System to get your access granted. The individual’s identity needs to be verified to validate the person who needs to access the entity’s service. • Authorization – Through authorization, any employee or contractor that meets the criteria can be granted access. This limits access to a specific number of people. The process is not complicated but has a couple of steps to get through the verification process.

The first step is the access attempt. An employee or any contractor needs to access the entity’s services. Then at the second step, the authentication process begins to determine who the individual is. The individual has to ensure the minimum assurance requirements are met. The authenticator uses the AAL2 and the AAL3 for the process.

The AAL2 uses a two-factor process, while the AAL3 uses the two-factor process and the authentication hardware. As soon as the authentication is successful, the ACS identifies the individual’s access entitlements and the protected resource. The ACS then compares the employee’s access entitlements and decides to either authorize or reject the request.

If all the details match up the requirements, the ACS grants access to the agency’s resources. The ACS keeps the information for auditing needs.

Accepting Federation Assertions

Using federation to accept authentication assertions and identification is important to ensure access is limited and only used for the right purposes. Reports can be generated by inter-connected agencies or business units for sharing individual or contractor attributes for easier access and functionality.

Government Identity Management Use Cases

For government identity, complex identity governance use cases are essential for identifying management systems for some sections of the government’s special needs. These can be sections such as national security and law enforcement. Every service-oriented part of the government is directly proportional to its role in every citizen’s life. The identity governance use cases in government identity cases can facilitate many responsibilities and accountabilities in the country’s agencies.

Access Management Use Cases

Through access management use cases, avoiding strict bureaucracy makes it more efficient to access and use resources making it beneficial to citizens and improving their overall living standards. Authentication of enterprises’ identities and access to protected services is vital to keep the government systems functionating. With supporting elements such as federation and governance, there’s so much that ICAM technologies can facilitate ensuring systems are running as smoothly as possible in a secure mode.

Conclusion

Supporting business objectives is essential for moving towards success. Applying identity management use cases in business processes is the best path forward for government agencies and organizations to offer uninterrupted services while ensuring system security and data protection.