Zero trust cybersecurity model assumes that all network activities cannot be trusted and that every access request should be validated before permission is granted to access resources. This model is designed to mitigate the risk of unauthorized access to sensitive data or systems and to prevent the spread of malware or other malicious activity within a network.

Zero Trust Cybersecurity Model Explained

The Zero Trust security concept advocates for always verifying the identity of users and devices before granting them access to network resources, regardless of their location or whether they were authenticated for past activities. This approach is based on the premise that organizations should not automatically trust any user or device within their network, and that all network traffic should be treated as potentially malicious until it has been properly authenticated and authorized.

In a zero-trust environment, all users, devices, and traffic are treated as potential threats, and every access request is verified and authenticated using multiple layers of security controls. This includes using strong, multi-factor authentication methods, such as passwords and security tokens, to verify the identity of users, as well as using network segmentation and micro-segmentation to limit access to only those resources that are necessary for a user to perform their job.

The goal of a Zero Trust security model is to protect against cyber threats by implementing strict access controls and continuously monitoring and verifying the identity of users and devices. This is often achieved through the use of multi-factor authentication, network segmentation, and secure remote access solutions.

Adopting a Zero Trust cybersecurity model can help organizations improve cybersecurity, and reduce data breach risks or other security incidents. However, implementing a zero-trust model can also require significant changes to an organization’s network infrastructure and security protocols, and may require the use of specialized security tools and technologies.

One important aspect of a Zero Trust cybersecurity model is the concept of “least privilege,” which means that users and devices are only granted the minimum access necessary to perform their job duties, and that access is continually monitored and reviewed. This helps to minimize the risk of unauthorized access and can help to prevent data breaches and other cyber-attacks.

How Zero Trust Cybersecurity Model Prevents Data Breach

Zero trust cybersecurity model assumes that any user, device, or system within an organization’s network may be compromised and should not be trusted automatically. Instead, each access request should be validated before permission is granted.

The goal of zero trust is to prevent data breaches by creating multiple layers of defense and continuously verifying the trustworthiness of users, devices, and systems. This approach helps to reduce the risk of a data breach by minimizing the number of potential entry points for attackers and continuously monitoring and verifying the identity and trustworthiness of those who are granted access to sensitive data.

Some specific ways in which zero trust can help prevent data breaches include:

Multi-factor authentication: Requiring multiple forms of authentication, such as a password and a security token, can help ensure that only authorized users are granted access to sensitive data.

Access controls: Zero trust systems typically use granular access controls to limit what users can see and do based on their role and needs. This helps to reduce the risk of unauthorized access to sensitive data.

Network segmentation: Zero trust systems often use network segmentation to create isolated networks for different groups or types of data. This helps to limit the spread of any potential compromise.

Continuous monitoring: Zero trust systems continuously monitor for unusual activity and can automatically block or alert on suspicious activity. This helps to catch any potential breaches before they can do significant damage.

Overall, zero trust is a proactive approach to security that helps to prevent data breaches by continuously verifying the trustworthiness of users, devices, and systems and limiting access to sensitive data to only those who are authorized.

How Zero Trust Cybersecurity Model Works

A Zero Trust security model typically involves the implementation of several key strategies and technologies:

  1. Identity and access management: This involves verifying the identity of users and devices before granting them access to network resources. This may involve the use of multi-factor authentication, single sign-on solutions, and access controls based on user roles and permissions.
  2. Network segmentation: This involves dividing the network into smaller segments or “micro-perimeters,” each of which is secured and isolated from the others. This helps to prevent unauthorized access and can contain the impact of a cyber-attack.
  3. Secure remote access: This involves implementing secure solutions for remote workers and devices to access network resources from outside the physical network perimeter. This may involve the use of virtual private networks (VPNs) and other secure remote access technologies.
  4. Continuous monitoring: In a Zero Trust model, the identity and activity of users and devices are continuously monitored and reviewed. This helps to detect and prevent unauthorized access or activity and can also help to identify potential cyber threats.
  5. Least privilege: This involves granting users and devices the minimum access necessary to perform their tasks, and continually reviewing and revoking access as needed. This helps to minimize the risk of unauthorized access and can help to prevent data breaches and other cyber-attacks.

By implementing these strategies and technologies, organizations can create a security model that is designed to continuously verify the identity and activity of users and devices, and grant access only to those that have been properly authenticated and authorized. This helps to protect against cyber threats and can help to prevent data breaches and other security incidents.

Identity and access management certifications

In a permissionless access management system, anyone can participate without needing approval from a central authority. This contrasts with a permissioned system, where only those with explicit permission can access and participate in a network.

Permissionless access management system

What Does Permissionless Mean?

When we discuss permissionless access management systems, we’re talking about systems that don’t require centralized control or approval. This is in contrast to traditional systems, which often rely on a single entity having ultimate control over the system and its users.

Permissionless access is one of the characteristics and advantages of decentralized networks which makes access more resistant to censorship and tampering, as there’s no central point of failure that can be exploited. It also allows for much greater innovation, as anyone can participate and explore new ideas without obtaining permission first.

Permissionless access management systems are not perfect. Without centralized control, ensuring quality or enforcing rules and standards can have its own set of challenges. For example, as anyone can participate in the network without a central authority and monitoring, there’s always the risk of bad actors taking advantage of the network weaknesses such as attempting sybil attacks.

Permissionless in Access Management

Permissionless means that anyone can access the system without first requesting access. There is no central authority that controls who can or cannot participate. This lack of gatekeepers is one of the defining characteristics of permissionless systems in decentralized blockchain networks such as Bitcoin. Anyone with an Internet connection can download the Bitcoin software and begin participating in the network.

Benefits of Permissionless Access Management System

There are a few key benefits to a permissionless access management system:

  1. Cost-effective: Since there is no need for a central authority or intermediaries, permissionless systems are often more cost-effective than traditional systems.
  2. Time-saving: Permissionless systems can often be set up and run much faster than traditional systems, as there is no need to request access approvals from a central authority.
  3. Censorship-resistant: Without a central point of control, permissionless systems are much more resistant to censorship. This means that users can freely share information and ideas without fear of being censored or shut down by a central authority. Twitter and YouTube are examples of central access management systems which have occasionally banned their users for making comments in contradiction to their central authority standards and way of thinking.

Overall, permissionless systems offer a lot of advantages over traditional permissioned systems. They’re more open, equal opportunity systems, decentralized, and resilient, which makes them well-suited for a wide range of applications.

Permissionless vs. Permissioned

Permissionless systems, also known as public systems, do not require approval from a central authority to join or participate. Bitcoin, the first and most well-known cryptocurrency, is an example of a permissionless system. Anyone can download the Bitcoin software and start making transactions without obtaining approval from any central authority.

Permissioned systems, on the other hand require approval from a central authority to join or participate. Another example of a permissioned system is Facebook. You cannot simply create a Facebook account without providing personal information and going through an authorization process.

Examples of Permissionless Access Management System

The term “permissionless” is often used to describe cryptocurrencies or other decentralized systems and blockchain networks that don’t require any central authority or intermediaries. In a permissionless system, anyone can participate without needing approval from anyone else.

One well-known example of a permissionless system is Bitcoin, the world’s first cryptocurrency. Bitcoin is a decentralized peer-to-peer network where anyone can send or receive payments without going through a bank or third party.

Another example of a semi-permissionless system is the Internet. Anyone can create a website or start using email without getting approval from anyone else. No gatekeepers are controlling who can and can’t participate. Although some websites can still be shut down by ISPs due to forbidden content.

Permissionless Blockchain

When comparing permissionless vs. permissioned blockchain, a permissionless blockchain is a distributed ledger that anyone can access and read. There is no need for approval from a central authority to view or make changes to the blockchain data. All users are equal; anyone can contribute to the network without permission. This makes it ideal for general applications where transparency and censorship resistance are essential.

Challenges in Permissionless Access Management System

There are a few challenges that come with a permissionless access management system. One challenge is that anyone can join the network, meaning there’s no guarantee of quality or trustworthiness. This can lead to issues like Sybil attacks, where bad actors flood the network with fake identities to subvert the system.

Another challenge is that without a central authority, it can be hard to make decisions or coordinate changes to the network. This decentralization can also make tracking down and punishing malicious actors challenging.

How Can Permissionless Access Management Be Used in Business?

There are a few critical ways that permissionless access can be applied in business:

  1. When it comes to data, businesses can use permissionless distributed ledgers to create immutable records of transactions and customer data. This provides a high level of security and transparency and ensures that data cannot be tampered with or lost.
  2. Businesses can use a permissionless distributed ledger to issue and manage digital assets. This could include anything from loyalty points to currency. Doing so on a permissionless distributed ledger allows for a much more secure and efficient system, as there is no need to trust a central authority.
  3. Finally, businesses can use permissionless distributed ledgers for smart contracts. This allows two parties to agree on a specific set of actions and outcomes without needing a third party. Smart contracts are stored on the blockchain and cannot be changed or deleted, providing a high degree of security and trust.


Permissionless access refers to the ability to access a resource or system without requiring explicit permission or authorization from a central authority or administrator. This means that anyone can access the resource or system without having to go through a specific process or request permission from a specific individual or group.

One example of a system with permissionless access is the internet, which allows anyone with an internet connection to access a wide variety of information and services without the need to obtain permission from a central authority. Similarly, many blockchain systems, such as the Bitcoin network, are designed to be permissionless, allowing anyone to participate in the network and validate transactions without needing to seek permission from a central authority.

Permissionless systems can provide a level of decentralization and democratization, as they allow anyone to participate and contribute to the system without the need for a centralized point of control. However, they can also present security and scalability challenges, as there is no central authority to regulate access and ensure that users are acting in the best interests of the system.

Identity and access management certifications

A Sybil attack is a cybersecurity threat to an online system where one person creates multiple fake identities or Sybil identities to influence and take over a P2P network. This article offers some details about Sybil attack risks and solutions.

Sybil attack risks and solutions

Sybil Attack Risks to Companies

Online services have been known to have problems with Sybil attacks as the scam can sway public opinion, often leading to financial gain for the perpetrator. For example, in a Sybil attack, the perpetrator can send identical messages or post similar content in different forums.

In a Sybil attack, there is the risk of reputation and identity damage and a significant loss of customer trust. The attack can have many purposes. For example, a Sybil attack can be used to spread damaging rumors about a company. This type of attack is also very common in the crypto space. For example, in a blockchain Sybil attack, the perpetrator may create multiple fake accounts posing as real persons which will make it difficult to determine the actual number of users in a blockchain network. A Sybil attack can also be inflicted on a blockchain to make transactions using multiple accounts. The objective of a blockchain Sybil attack is to take advantage of an account with a high reputation score to pretend having a significant number of followers or amount of money. This type of attack would not be possible if the actual user account is not compromised because after fake accounts are created, the scammer must access the actual user’s account by stealing their email or password which makes it very important to maintain account security at all times with strong passwords and multi-factor authentication.

How To Detect Sybil Attacks

Companies should look for red flags in new accounts. The information in an email address, IP address, phone number, physical postal address, etc., can be noted and validated to identify a pattern of abuse. This type of monitoring for abuse is more likely to be successful when the company performs the monitoring proactively rather than after the abuse has been identified. Some services require the validation of a phone number or physical address before allowing the creation of a new account, which can further protect them from a Sybil attack.

Sybil Attack Risks and Solutions

Below is a list of Sybil attack risks and solutions that may be considered to prevent these attacks:

1. Whitelist Users

If a company allows comments to be posted on its website, the whitelist approach is beneficial for users to prevent a Sybil attack. It is an effective filtering method that prevents an attack from occurring through the identification of the IP address of each user as they log into the website.

2. Canvas Fingerprinting

It is a supplementary method that works with user-agent and IP address data by adding information about other sources outside the computer. It is used to detect the most active Sybil attackers. It needs to be foolproof to avoid false positives.

3. Use of CAPTCHAs

CAPTCHAs require that a user correctly answer a set of challenges, such as how to spell a word or what number is the favorite number of choices. They are often used to prevent spamming, but they are also among effective methods used to detect Sybil attacks.

4. Machine Learning

Machine learning and artificial intelligence is a great tool to detect and prevent Sybil attacks efficiently and effectively. As Sybil attacks commonly occur on social media websites that allow comments and postings, machine learning can help companies identify and block potential attackers in real time before posting any comments on their social media accounts or websites.

5. Banters

Banters are a form of attack detection method that tries to identify users who are likely to be creating malicious discussions on the forum or chatroom by monitoring the frequency of posts, user IDs, and IP addresses over time. It is not a foolproof method, as it can provide false positives. This detection method is often used in conjunction with other methods to reduce the number of false positives.

6. De-anonymization

Deanonymization is a relatively new solution that involves identifying an anonymous user by analyzing the network packet data between the client and server while interacting. It is not a foolproof method, and it comes with the risk of having false positives. Though rare, this can have adverse effects on a company’s reputation.


Sybil attacks significantly impact the company’s reputation and customers since they will give potential attackers access to their accounts, reputation, financial information and other sensitive data. Companies that are proactive in protecting themselves against these attacks can avoid the negative impact and consequences of such attacks. Companies can leverage the allowlist method to prevent any potential attackers from using the company’s platforms.

Identity and access management certifications

As we embrace the blockchain technology in various industries to make crypto transactions, mint and exchange NFTs, deploy smart contracts, and build the metaverse, there are top blockchain security risks that we have to consider and address.

Top Blockchain Security Risks

The underlying strengths of blockchain include decentralization and cryptography to secure digital assets and build trust. However, due to poor technical design and implementation as well as improper use and maintenance of various components such as digital wallets, certain security and privacy risks may arise.

Some of the top blockchain security risks may be unnoticeable to the average users of the blockchain yet they may cause devastating damage such as identity theft of stolen digital assets. Some of these cybersecurity risks may be today’s common threats which spillover into the blockchain domain such as phishing attacks, identity theft, and endpoint vulnerabilities, and new risks may be around private keys and digital wallets. Other more technical security issues may include 51%, routing, and Sybil attacks, or malicious nodes that we mention in this article.

The complete set of security and privacy risks in Web3 is unknown to the industry experts and will most likely evolve as we develop new ways to identify ourselves with digital identifiers, store and exchange information, own digital assets, make payments across the globe, invest, and live in the interactive digital life of the metaverse that is an extension of our physical life and preferences.

Top Blockchain Security Risks

Routing Attack

One of the possible attacks against blockchain is the routing attack which relates to the Internet Service Provider partitioning the network when IP prefixes are hijacked.

Delay Attack

In a delay attack, the blockchain network communication can be delayed in the ISP traffic which can result in double spending.

Endpoint Vulnerabilities

In a blockchain network, users interact with endpoints such as phones and computer devices in which cases hackers can steal private keys and monitor user behavior.

51% Attack

While difficult to execute due to hardware costs involved, in a 51% attack, a group of miners or just a miner controls over 50% of a blockchain network to gain hash or validator control.

Phishing Attack

In a blockchain based phishing attack, scammers persuade crypto owners through impersonation to share their private keys or password to their crypto wallets which can lead to stolen digital assets.

Sybil Attack

In a Sybil attack, scammers create a multitude of fake identities which appear as legitimate IDs to take over and influence the network. This is mostly possible in decentralized networks and can be mitigated through a consensus algorithm to ensure that only legitimate nodes join the network

Private Key Theft

While a brute force attack is deemed impossible on a blockchain network such a Bitcoin, private keys can be stolen or leaked which will allow someone else to access user wallet.

Malicious Nodes

Blockchain nodes are designed to ensure that only trusted data is processed as they store a copy of the blockchain ledger and validate blocks and transactions submitted by other nodes. Malicious nodes when working together can create a large pool of nodes to influence the voting and decision making process for adding a block to the network.

Identity Theft and Fraud

While blockchain can solve many of todays’ centralized identity management problems such as identity theft, scammers may target the weakest link in the blockchain security by targeting users who have more control over their digital identities and assets in a decentralized network. For example, a person’s avatar in a metaverse setting which represent an actual person may be taken over to harm others or a person’s private keys may be stolen to attack wallets.

Digital Wallet and Crypto Theft

As more users self-manage their own crypto wallets, there is always a risk that digital wallets become victims of scammers who target users’ private keys to access digital assets stored in a wallet.

Metaverse Security Training

Identity Management Institute continues to be at the forefront of evolving security and privacy risks by sharing content that raises awareness of the risks and administering certification programs to educate industry professionals and offer solutions. IMI is the creator of the Certified Metaverse Security Consultant (CMSC) certification program which was launched in 2022. Cybersecurity professionals are encourage to get certified and also join the Metaverse Security discussion group to stay up to date and exchange information.

CMSC Metaverse security certification

With the rising popularity of digital assets such as crypto and decentralized identity, users take advantage of digital wallets to store their identity data and digital assets, however, there are some crypto wallet security risks that we need to address.

In a blockchain based digital age, individuals no longer need to rely on traditional ways to identify themselves, access their accounts, or store digital assets. Instead, personal identifiers and digital assets like crypto and NFTs can be stored in crypto wallets.

Crypto Wallet Security Risks

What Exactly is a Crypto Wallet?

In the simplest terms, a crypto wallet is where an individual stores digital assets and private keys or passwords used to access cryptocurrency. These wallets are designed to protect, store, send, and receive digital assets and currency like Ethereum or Bitcoin. They come in different forms, from mobile applications to physical hardware that resembles a USB flash drive which are used for authentication or shopping online using cryptocurrency, which is as straightforward as a traditional credit card.

It’s important to remember that these crypto wallets don’t store actual crypto currency. The cryptocurrency is instead on the blockchain or digital ledger. The crypto wallet holds the private keys to access the digital currency on the blockchain and is an important security consideration. So essentially, a crypto wallet is the key to the vault and critical to accessing crypto assets.

What are Crypto Wallet Security Risks?

There are always savvy thieves working to find ways around security measures. Therefore, it’s essential to consider the various crypto wallet security risks. Wallet applications that are available on mobile devices and personal desktop computers connected to the internet are always accessible which are also called hot wallets. While convenient, some apps include functionality that may increase the risks of theft. For example, some wallet apps feature the ability to export keys. Remember, those are the same keys that grant access to digital assets on the blockchain.

Another issue with a mobile wallet is that private keys are stored within the application. So, software bugs or vulnerabilities within the app itself can become problematic. In fact, this isn’t just a hypothetical situation, as thieves have exploited or hacked into mobile wallet applications in the past.

Another form of the crypto wallet is web-based. Coinbase is a popular choice for this type of wallet, where you must navigate a secure login process to access private keys. However, the account can be tied to a mobile phone number, leaving users vulnerable if they misplace or lose their smartphone. Unfortunately, it would only take a skilled thief a few moments to transfer all crypto assets to another wallet.

Desktop wallets allow users to access their private keys right from the desktop. The thinking behind this crypto wallet is that the information remains on a personal computer. However, the data remains unsecured and susceptible to knowledgeable hackers unless the PC is encrypted.

How to Counteract the Risks

With all these risks, how do digital wallet users keep their digital assets safe? Fortunately, several ways exist to mitigate the risks and help ensure private keys remain private.

First, before choosing a crypto wallet, it’s crucial to verify whether or not it stores private keys in an encrypted form. This encryption is an extra layer of security that prevents private keys from falling into the wrong hands.

Secondly, users should add extra security measures to their smartphones. While a PIN seems like a solid security measure, someone could still lean over and view the code being entered. Instead, utilize a fingerprint authenticator that’s much more difficult to circumnavigate.

Another great theft deterrent is a strong password for web-based wallets. Resist the urge to reuse passwords or make them too simple for convenience sake. While it may be cumbersome to enter, a complex and strong password will protect users from hackers looking for easy targets.

Many crypto wallet options offer more robust security features like 2-factor authentication. It may be tempting to turn the feature off for easier login, but it adds another layer of security. Every hurdle put in front of a hacker makes you the least desirable target.

It’s also vital that should an individual’s account get compromised, a plan is in place to respond. Any unusual crypto wallet activity discovered should be immediately taken seriously a robust response. Once an account is breached, it could be minutes before a robust account balance is reduced to zero.

Lastly, another type of crypto wallet avoids many of the security concerns outlined above, and that’s a hardware wallet. These small physical devices look similar to USB memory drives and allow users to log in once plugged into a PC. A small screen also confirms transactions and requires a PIN to access hardware wallets. These wallets when not connected to the internet are called cold wallets.

Security Measure Considerations

  • Private key encryption
  • Smartphone fingerprint authentication
  • Two-factor authentication
  • Response plan in case of data breach

Keeping Private Keys Secure

While there are many options for crypto wallets to consider, it’s important to take extra security steps. The risks associated with digital wallets aren’t too significant to overcome with a bit of planning. Consider crypto wallets such as mobile, desktop, web-based, and hardware to determine the right option. Add extra layers of security where possible, and hackers will move on to easier prey. Mitigating the risks of using crypto wallets is simple but shouldn’t be taken lightly.

CMSC Metaverse security certification

There are a few decentralized identity management risks that we must consider as the identity management industry is leveraging the blockchain technology to move away from centralized identity management for obvious reasons that we will discuss.

Many people are unaware that they lack dominion over their own identity. Physical IDs, such as a driver’s license, and social security card, come from the government, which maintains the records. If someone loses any of these pieces of ID, they must rely on the government for replacements and verification.

decentralized identity management risks

Many websites verify identity through third-party email providers. These email providers also maintain records and verify identity routinely for security purposes. Third-party organizations hold identity information, control changes, and handle inquiries from other parties without cooperation from the individual.

But what if there was another system that allowed control of identity to shift away from third parties? Wouldn’t it benefit individuals to have control over their own identity? In this article, we will discuss how decentralized identity management works, how decentralized identifiers can be used to improve authentication, decentralized identity management risks, and a few suggestions to improve identity management.

How Decentralized Identity Works

When considering how vital a person’s identity data is to daily life and the identity management risks we face today, decentralized identity has gained popularity. So, let’s examine how decentralized identity works. Everyone’s identity contains identifiers which consist of anything from names to online avatars. Instead of other entities holding and controlling identifiers, public blockchains offer an alternative for people to maintain the data themselves.

A blockchain is a digital ledger that contains evolving records represented by blocks. These blocks are chained together for security and hold transactions, timestamps, and more. Blockchains have become notable in the cryptocurrency market and can be used to buy, sell, and trade digital stocks.

With decentralized identity, a new form of identifiers is possible, and they don’t need any centralized party to issue, verify or hold. For example, an individual could create an account with Ethereum, which doesn’t require third-party permission and stores within blockchains to function as a decentralized identifier. A central third-party hub doesn’t keep this data; instead, a peer-to-peer digital ledger stores it.

Decentralized Identity Management Risks

As freeing as decentralized identity sounds, there are also some risks associated with this approach. While blockchains or digital ledgers are challenging to breach, a cybersecurity incident is still possible. One of the advantages of centralized identity is that it’s up to the third party to research, implement and maintain security.

When a third-party holding an individual’s identifiers suffers a security breach, a few steps take place. First, notifications of the hack are distributed, and then the centralized entity takes action to resolve the situation. With a decentralized identity, a person may be unaware of a security issue for some time and then must handle it themselves.

Another potential issue of decentralized identity is managing which entities have what data. With the option to control identifiers, individuals will still need to decide whether to allow third-party access to data. In some situations, a person may grant access, while consent to data may be revoked in others. Regardless, an active approach to information consent will become a large part of identity self-management.


Decentralized identity offers a way to self-control identifiers and move away from third-party management. While it provides several benefits, there are also some drawbacks to consider. Bear in mind some of these issues may resolve or, at the very least, become streamlined as technology improves. Consider the current disadvantages of decentralized identity management and determine if these present significant obstacles.


Digital identities provide access to systems and services in a variety of use cases as we explore identity management trends. A single identity may represent a person, device or organization, and access permissions must be managed properly to minimize the risk of cyberattacks. Efficient identity management is also required for streamlined workflows, regulatory compliance and reliable security. 

As digital access becomes more complex, businesses must look into the future to prepare for the unique challenges posed by the entrance of more devices into systems and the increasing sophistication of hackers. New trends in digital identity management provide the tools IT professionals and cybersecurity experts need to secure networks against fraud. 

Digital Identity Management Trends

Zero Trust Takes Center Stage 

Traditional access management falls short when it comes to the level of security necessary to protect modern networks. It assumes all users granted access to the network are trustworthy, and therefore every action and permission associated with their identities can safely be performed without further verification. However, this approach has a fatal flaw: Hackers using stolen credentials are given the same level of trust as legitimate users and may be able to penetrate deep into a network before the deception is discovered. 

This has given rise to the trend of the “zero trust” model, in which network insiders and outsiders are treated as posing equal levels of risk. Instead of relying only on preset permissions, rules or roles, zero trust systems monitor user behaviors and allow access based on perceived risk levels. Information is compartmentalized into “microsegments,” and as a user moves within the system, his or her behaviors generate a risk score. If the score is too high, further access requires re-authentication using multiple identifying factors. 

In addition to microsegmentation, companies opting for zero trust access can set additional restrictions based on location, IP addresses and specific permissions. Doing so ensures users aren’t allowed more access than is necessary to do their jobs, an identity management best practice known as the principle of least privilege (POLP) designed to minimize how much hackers can get away with using a single set of stolen credentials. 

Blockchain Leads to Decentralized Identities in Future Digital Identity Management Trends

Maintaining a centralized database of user identities is time-consuming for businesses and can pose a major security risk if the information is ever compromised. The rise of blockchain technology may make it possible to move to a decentralized model in which users create their own identities, register authenticating factors and have the information verified by a trusted third party before being stored in the blockchain. 

Each block in the blockchain contains digital information, such as an identity, and carries a unique identifying code called a “hash.” By adding identities to the blockchain instead of a central database, users make themselves part of what Gartner refers to as the identity trust fabric (ITF). The ITF technology is still being developed and will require better management of accessibility, privacy and security before it can be implemented on a broad scale. 

The shift to decentralized identities parallels the predicted demise of single-factor, password-based authentication. With 81 percent of data breaches attributed to weak or compromised login credentials, it’s necessary to adopt a system in which access requires stronger authentication credentials. Identities stored in the blockchain can be used to access applications from a variety of service providers without creating the points of vulnerability associated with password access. 

Advanced Analytics Allow Adaptive Access

Rule-based access control relies on rules established by a network administrator to determine if requests within the system should be approved or denied. This allows for a measure of control over who can access specific data and applications, when access is to be granted and whether any restrictions are created based on location or other attributes. However, it’s impossible to foresee every scenario in which a user or group of users may require access. Restrictive rules can create bottlenecks in workflows, and liberal rules increase security risks. 

Adaptive access offers a smarter alternative. Adaptive environments use a combination of advanced analytics information and machine learning technology to learn users’ behavioral patterns and grant or deny access based on whether or not behaviors are perceived as normal. This creates a more “risk-aware” system with an inherent ability to detect anomalies and trigger security actions as necessary. 

Intelligent digital identity management is a crucial factor in the fight against cybercrime. To prevent networks from falling victim to attacks, businesses must look forward and prepare to implement new security technologies. Adapting to the latest technologies means being able to use the tools available to establish proactive responses and protect systems from a growing number of threats. Businesses ready to evolve with these changes will be better able to manage risks and maintain the strong security required to protect networks in the modern technological era.

Identity and access management certifications

Crypto transaction privacy implications must be considered in cryptocurrency payments and smart contract transactions. The digital world is becoming more and more intertwined with our everyday lives since the inception of the blockchain technology, Web3, metaverse, and crypto. With the advent of cryptocurrency, we now have a new way to conduct digital transactions. Cryptocurrency offers many advantages over traditional fiat currency but also comes with some risks and implications including crypto transaction privacy.

Crypto Transaction Privacy

Crypto Transaction Overview

Crypto and blockchain in general have been praised for their transparency, but crypto transaction privacy can be confusing and contradicting when we compare privacy of smart contracts to the privacy of the cryptocurrency payment transactions. While regulators are concerned with money laundering and illegal activity financing aspects of crypto transactions, parties to the smart contract transactions are concerned with the lack of privacy. This is because blockchain technology, the underlying cryptocurrency technology, is designed to be transparent. That means that every transaction made on a blockchain is visible to everyone on the public ledger.

While this transparency has benefits for regulators and others, it also means that some crypto transaction details are not private. When it comes to privacy in cryptocurrency transactions, there are a few key things to keep in mind. Crypto is designed to be decentralized which doesn’t rely on third-party intermediaries or a centralized figure. This means that all transaction data is stored on a public ledger (blockchain) that is viewable by anyone. However, this doesn’t mean that all transaction data is or should be completely public. In most cases, only the addresses involved in a transaction are visible. This means that identity is not directly attached to the transactions.

Benefits of Blockchain Transaction Privacy

One of the major benefits of crypto transaction privacy is the protection of user identities. When users transact using private currency, their personal information is not attached to the transaction and their identity is less likely to be stolen or compromised. Additionally, privacy coins can help protect users’ financial privacy because when users transact using a private currency, their financial information is not shared with anyone else. Their financial privacy is protected, and they can keep their transactions and finances confidential.

Drawbacks of Crypto Transaction Privacy

There are some potential drawbacks to using a private currency. One of the main drawbacks is that it can be more difficult to trace transactions back to the parties involved. Thus, tracking criminals or investigating illegal activity in private currency may be more difficult. Additionally, crypto currencies can be more volatile than traditional currencies. Their value can fluctuate more rapidly, and they may be subject to more fluctuations in the market, although, cryptocurrency volatility is expected to decrease as the crypto market matures.

Privacy Coins and Tokens in Crypto

Some digital currencies, such as Monero and Zcash, offer privacy features that make it difficult for third parties to track transactions. These “privacy coins” or “privacy tokens” use various methods to protect users’ identities and keep their transactions private.

One popular method is called ring signature which mixes a user’s transaction with other transactions, making it difficult to identify the sender. Another common technique is using “stealth addresses,” which create a one-time address for each transaction that can’t be linked back to the user.

Private coins have become increasingly popular as more people look for ways to keep their financial activities private. However, privacy tokens have also been associated with criminal activity, as you can use them to launder money or buy illegal goods.

However, there are some trade-offs to consider:

  • Transaction privacy can come at the expense of transparency. Auditing a blockchain may be more difficult if transaction details are hidden.
  • Private coins and tokens may be subject to more regulatory scrutiny than other cryptocurrencies. Authorities may be concerned about the use of these coins for illegal activity.

Smart Contracts in Crypto

When it comes to cryptocurrency transactions, one of the key considerations is transaction privacy. In some cases, crypto transactions can be completely anonymous, meaning there is no way for anyone to know who is sending or receiving funds. This can be a great advantage for people who want to keep their financial affairs private. However, it also has disadvantages for regulators and crime investigators tracking criminals who use crypto to launder money, finance terrorism, or trade illegal goods.

One of the key features of blockchain is the use of smart contracts in almost every transaction which is essentially an automated program that self executes whenever a transaction criteria is met. Part of the smart contract program may be to automatically pay a party with an agreed upon crypto when a certain action is taken. The challenge here is to keep certain actions and details of the transactions private while the payment data is kept transparent on the blockchain as much as possible or necessary for tracking and investigations.

This means that it would be much easier to track down and prosecute if someone were to try and launder money using a smart contract without disclosing other private and sensitive data.

According to Henry Bagdasarian, “while maintaining privacy in cryptocurrency payment transactions may not be possible in the long run due to regulations and compliance concerns, privacy in smart contracts for commerce and business transactions may be necessary to keep details and sensitive data out of the public view.”

Privacy and Security Considerations

Regarding privacy and security in cryptocurrency, there are a few key considerations to keep in mind. First and foremost, it’s important to remember that blockchain is a public ledger. This means that all transactions are recorded and visible to everyone on the network. However, the identities of the parties involved are not revealed in privacy coin transactions. In other words, while it is possible to trace a particular transaction back to a specific wallet, it is impossible to determine who owns the wallet in private coin transactions.

This transparency has led some people to believe that some crypto coins are not a good choice for privacy-conscious individuals. However, there are a few ways to increase privacy when using non-private coins. For example, some use a service like CoinMixer, which mixes your coins with other users’ coins, making it more difficult to trace a particular transaction back to the cryptocurrency owner. Alternatively, some people use “CoinJoin” to anonymize crypto transactions. This technique allows multiple users to combine their coins into a single transaction, making it more difficult to determine which coins belong to which user.

Of course, no matter what measures are taken to increase privacy, it’s important to remember that crypto currencies are not completely anonymous and future regulations may render many of these privacy techniques illegal including many of the privacy coins such as Monero which uses ring signatures and stealth addresses to make it virtually impossible to trace transactions back to their source.

Privacy When Trading Crypto

One way to maintain privacy during crypto trading is to use a decentralized exchange (DEX) which is a peer-to-peer network that allows users to trade directly with each other without the need for a central authority. This means there is no central control or data collection point, making it more difficult for third parties to track and trace transactions. DEXs have built-in mechanisms to obfuscate further transaction data, such as onion routing or zero-knowledge proofs.

Another way to maintain privacy during crypto transactions is to use a privacy focused token. These cryptocurrencies are designed with privacy and often utilize technologies like ring signatures or stealth addresses, making it more difficult for third parties to track and trace transactions. Privacy coins can be exchanged on centralized and decentralized exchanges, giving users more flexibility in their trade.

How to Achieve Privacy in Crypto?

Regarding financial privacy, cryptocurrencies offer more privacy because they are designed to be decentralized and peer-to-peer without needing third-party intermediaries. This means that there is no central authority that can snoop on or censor crypto transactions.

Crypto privacy can be further enhanced by using a decentralized exchange instead of a centralized ones. DEXs don’t require users to create accounts or submit personal information, so they offer a higher degree of anonymity.

There are also other mechanisms to increase privacy when making crypto transactions. For example, a “burner” wallet can be used for a single transaction before being discarded. Alternatively, a VPN or Tor can be used to mask an IP address, making it more difficult for someone to track activity.

Combining these methods help achieve digital currency transaction privacy to the extent that regulations allow which can change at any time making privacy coins, software, and methods illegal. By being vigilant about your privacy and using decentralized platforms wherever possible, you can help keep your financial information safe from prying eyes to the extent that the regulations allow.

The Benefits of Cryptocurrency Transaction Privacy

There are many benefits to keeping crypto transactions private. One benefit is that it helps keep an identity safe. For example, transactional history could be used to track users down and steal their identity.

Privacy can also help protect consumers from fraudsters. If someone knows what coins a person holds and where they’re stored, they could try to hack into the account to steal the coins. By keeping information private, we can keep ourselves safe from these attacks.


When we discuss crypto transaction privacy, it is important to distinguish between payment privacy and smart contract privacy. Payments may be subject to various regulations while smart contracts executed between two parties may not need to be fully disclosed. Cryptocurrency transactions are not always as private as many people think. While it is true that cryptocurrencies offer a higher degree of anonymity than traditional financial systems, there are still ways for third parties to track and trace crypto transactions. If you value your privacy, it is essential to be aware of the risks involved in using cryptocurrency and take steps to minimize the risks.


Taking on new suppliers as you grow your business is associated with a unique set of challenges and risks. Vendor partnerships increase the number of people with access to your systems, thus proper vendor onboarding and access management requires diligence when assessing potential security issues. 

Vendor onboarding

When Should Vendors be Allowed Access? 

Efficiency is key to success in the modern market. Companies failing to adapt to the pace of commerce become overwhelmed by the number of administrative tasks necessary to keep the business going and are eventually outpaced by competitors. 

Vendor onboarding and access management is one way to streamline your business processes and eliminate the bottlenecks created when performing transactions with partners outside your system. Onboarding your suppliers maintains efficiency by making it possible to communicate, place orders and send payments without leaving your company’s system or requiring additional software or services to handle supplier transactions. 

Onboarding supports flexible workflows and allows your system to remain both scalable and adaptable. If vendors are left out of the system, your company is forced to use outdated technologies to deal with an increasing number of supplier relationships. The segmented nature of these relationships increases the likelihood of duplicating suppliers for the same or similar products, paying more than you need to for essential supplies and failing to maintain the proper level of communication. 

Major Security Risks of Third-Party Access 

For vendor onboarding to be secure, however, you must understand the risks associated with each potential partner. Despite vendor access accounting for an average of 89 connections per week, only 34 percent of companies allowing vendor access actually know which system logins can be attributed to their suppliers. In a survey conducted by Bomgar, 69 percent of businesses said they could associate a security breach in the previous year with a problem with vendor access. 

These statistics highlight the critical importance of third-party access risk management, yet only 52 percent of companies have solid security standards governing vendor onboarding. To keep your network safe from accidental or deliberate breaches caused by third parties, consider these factors before clearing a vendor for system access: 

• Credit history, including bankruptcies and liens 
• Reliability with delivering orders and services
• How security risks are handled 
• How often security audits are performed 
• Maintenance of data security 
• Regularity of data backups 
• Number and types of devices used for network access 

Use these details to assess the level of risk for each vendor, and tailor your security efforts to address specific risks associated with each third party. 

Maintaining Compliance 

Regulatory compliance is a growing concern for all businesses. From credit card processing to email opt-ins, customers want to know their data is safe and that they have the choice to revoke a company’s privilege to use, transmit or store personal information. 

Vendors not in compliance with the regulations to which your business is subject are a risk not only to the network but also to the reputation of your company. Being flagged for noncompliance carries hefty fines and possible legal consequences, and it reduces consumer confidence when customers realize their data isn’t as safe with you as they thought. 

Discuss your company’s compliance strategies with each vendor you wish to onboard, and look into their histories to find out if they’ve dealt with any compliance or security issues in the past. Evaluate certificates of compliance for relevant regulations so that you know your company will be in the clear should you choose to allow network access. 

Steps for Successful Vendor Onboarding 

According to some statistics, about 60% of data breaches can be attributed to vendors and related vendor access incidents can cost businesses millions as evidenced by past vendor incidents. A strategic third-party onboarding process minimizes the risk of your business suffering loss from similar incidents. 

Onboarding should begin with an assessment of the potential risks associated with allowing a specific vendor to access your systems. It’s important to be as detailed as possible during the vetting process. Utilize all information available about each vendor to get a clear picture of how well they adhere to regulations. If their compliance and security measures check out, you can collect the information you need to add them to the system and allow for streamlined access. 

To keep company data safe, it’s essential to follow the same onboarding process for every vendor, every time. Implement monitoring solutions to track logins and system activity for all users, making use of modern technologies to detect potentially malicious activities. Train employees in all security measures relating to third-party access, including how to respond should monitoring software discover unauthorized activities. 

Whether it’s a new company or a group you’ve worked with for years, no exceptions should be made when onboarding any third party. Maintain the security of your system and prevent problems with compliance by establishing proper boundaries with vendors and re-evaluating access needs over time.

Identity and access management certifications

Artificial Intelligence in Information SecurityWhether it’s another data breach at a major company or a shift in the way large businesses approach security, cybersecurity news continue to highlight the importance of strong identity and access management policies with help from artificial intelligence in information security and machine learning applications. Knowing the threats you may encounter and the protections available can guide you in making the best decisions to secure your systems.


Data Breach – Lessons Learned

When a tech giant experienced a “data issue” involving leaked “customer names and email addresses”, according to reported news, the online retailer blamed the data exposure on a “technical error.” Users affected by the problem were sent a vaguely worded email assuring them there was no need to change their passwords.

Many users assumed the email was a phishing attempt and were baffled. However, even though the company stayed quiet about the details, the reported leak was legitimate. No information was forthcoming from the company about the number of people affected or the root cause of the issue, but poor access management is one potential culprit. When permissions are granted beyond a user’s access needs, errors are more likely and hackers have more opportunities to gain entrance into a system.

This leak serves as a reminder to assess permissions and keep access privileges under control in enterprise systems. With so many users interacting throughout the network on the front and back ends, it’s critical to ensure each person only has access to the information and applications necessary to perform essential tasks.

The Rise of Next-Gen IDaaS

As traditional authentication methods lose efficacy, businesses need new ways to address identity management and enforce privilege levels such as the new generation of Identity as a Service (IDaaS) that is available to companies searching for smarter, stronger IAM tools.

For example, IDaaS provides fresh ways to manage customer identities and sign-on procedures. Companies interacting with large numbers of users on a daily basis can leverage enterprise-grade tools to improve the customer experience across all access points.

IDaaS solutions include tools designed to:

• Handle customer registration and authentication
• Improve customer preference and consent management
• Enable continuous integration
• Set up and maintain single-sign on (SSO) access
• Speed up self-service account recovery
• Centralize policy administration and enforcement
• Improve identity analytics

With these options readily available, companies are better able to monitor customers’ access behaviors to detect and stop fraud, and, deal with bottlenecks leading to registration abandonment.

More IDaaS solutions are likely to arise as customer access management increases in complexity. Companies need IDaaS to ensure a high level of security for sensitive data without hampering the customer experience. Being able to provide straightforward registration options and a seamless transition between applications removes potential barriers and allows customers to interact appropriately while preventing unwanted data access.

Do Enterprises Need Artificial Intelligence in Information Security?

With connectivity no longer limited to in-house networks and the number of internet-ready devices continuing to increase, enterprises need a better way to manage risk levels. Threats are becoming more numerous and sophisticated as hackers adapt to the changing landscape of modern networks. With IoT, BYOD, remote work and cloud-based collaboration becoming the norm, there are a growing number of endpoints at which malicious third parties can gain network access.

To address these changes, companies must be ready to switch from threat prevention to proactive detection and response. Outdated security protocols can’t offer the dynamic tools necessary to protect against numerous modern threats, which is why many businesses are turning to artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML).

With these sophisticated tools in place, enterprises can build security strategies designed to handle the 750 or more applications running on their networks and the 1,500 users accessing each application throughout the day. AI and ML are better at detecting unusual behavior anywhere on a network and can trigger immediate responses to detect a threat before it turns into a full-blown breach. Because these modern security resources can “learn” which behaviors are normal and which aren’t, enterprises no longer have to rely on periodic software updates to get all the information on new threats. Instead, AI and ML work together to “understand” when something is amiss and launch a defense as quickly as possible.

The smartest thing you can do to ensure your systems and data are protected against the growing number of unique threats from malicious parties is to be alert:

  • continue to watch the changing identity and access management landscape,
  • learn from security breaches in the news,
  • get more information about new solutions as they become available, and
  • implement the most relevant options for your organization.